Following his victory in the United States presidential election, 2008, then-President-electBarack Obama gave his victory speech at Grant Park in his home city of Chicago, Illinois, on November 4, 2008, before an estimated crowd of 240,000. Viewed on television and the Internet by millions of people around the globe, Obama's speech focused on the major issues facing the United States and the world, all echoed through his campaign slogan of change. He also mentioned his maternal grandmother Madelyn Dunham, who had died just two nights earlier.
References in the speech
The speech heavily referenced the inaugural addresses of former Presidents John F. Kennedy and Abraham Lincoln, and also referred to speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Echoing Martin Luther King's "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address, he declared, "But tonight, because of what we did on this day, in this election, at this defining moment, change has come to America" and "The road ahead will be long, our climb will be steep. We may not get there in one year, or even in one term—but America, I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there." At another point in the speech he again referenced King when referring to the "arc of history", a phrase King used regularly, most notably after the Selma to Montgomery marches, saying "the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice".
Obama directly quoted Abraham Lincoln's first inaugural address, by saying "As Lincoln said to a nation far more divided than ours, we are not enemies but friends. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection."
Obama also referred to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by saying "...that more than two centuries later a government of the people, by the people, and for the people has not perished from the Earth"
Obama proclaimed, "It's been a long time coming, but...change has come to America," an allusion to the Sam Cooke song "A Change Is Gonna Come".
Obama also made a reference to a prospective presidential pet for his daughters.
Sasha and Malia … I love you both more than you can imagine. And you have earned the new puppy that's coming with us … to the White House.
Obama spoke of the core issues facing the United States at the time, among them the economy, and the Iraq War.
Even as we stand here tonight, we know there are brave Americans waking up in the deserts of Iraq and the mountains of Afghanistan to risk their lives for us. There are mothers and fathers who will lie awake after the children fall asleep and wonder how they'll make the mortgage or pay their doctors' bills or save enough for their child's college education.
On the economic crisis:
Let us remember that, if this financial crisis taught us anything, it's that we cannot have a thriving Wall Street while Main Street suffers.
A message to America's enemies and friends:
To those — to those who would tear the world down: We will defeat you. To those who seek peace and security: We support you. And to all those who have wondered if America's beacon still burns as bright: Tonight we proved once more that the true strength of our nation comes not from the might of our arms or the scale of our wealth, but from the enduring power of our ideals: democracy, liberty, opportunity and unyielding hope.
"There's new energy to harness, new jobs to be created, new schools to build, and threats to meet, alliances to repair." 
To our future as Americans:
"This is our time, to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids; to restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace; to reclaim the American dream and reaffirm that fundamental truth, that, out of many, we are one; that while we breathe, we hope. And where we are met with cynicism and doubts and those who tell us that we can't, we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up the spirit of a people: Yes, we can."
In his speech, Obama reflected on the hard times of the campaign and the "challenges that America would face ahead." TV coverage of the speech showed Jesse Jackson and Oprah Winfrey weeping in the crowd. Obama's speech also marked the first time a President-elect referred positively to gay Americans in an acceptance speech. Sam Perry experienced a brief moment of fame when Oprah Winfrey leaned on him while crying on his shoulder.
Grant Park was the location of many protests of the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which were significant for ending in violence, riots and police brutality. CNN declared, "History gave Grant Park another chance Tuesday as the scene of a peaceful and jubilant celebration of Barack Obama's presidential victory." Obama's speech has been praised as having "...the rare ability to cultivate the things that are common to all human beings, regardless of artificial and arbitrary distinctions."
Ann Nixon Cooper
One of the primary references within Obama's speech was to Ann Nixon Cooper, a 106-year-old resident of Atlanta, Georgia.
She was born just a generation past slavery; a time when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky, when someone like her couldn't vote for two reasons — because she was a woman and because of the color of her skin.
Obama also made reference to his popular campaign chant, "Yes We Can":
And tonight, I think about all that she’s seen throughout her century in America — the heartache and the hope; the struggle and the progress; the times we were told that we can’t; and the people who pressed on with that American creed: 'Yes, we can.'”
Due to the general high security threat involved, Obama delivered the speech protected by two pieces of bulletproof glass (2 inches (5.1 cm) thick, 10 feet (3.0 m) high, 15 feet (4.6 m) long) to each side of the lectern to deflect any shots from the skyscrapers overlooking Grant Park. There was no glass shield in front of the lectern. A no-fly zone was also imposed over the area, with only police helicopters allowed in the air. The gathering involved the deployment of thousands of police, Army and Secret Service personnel. The event cost the Obama campaign an estimated $2 million. Even with the large threat at hand, no arrests were made related to the event.
Prior to Obama's emergence onto the stage, "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours" by Stevie Wonder, "Only in America" by Brooks & Dunn, and "(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher" by Jackie Wilson were played. When Obama, Joe Biden, and their families appeared on stage following the speech, music from the films Remember the Titans, composed by Trevor Rabin, and The Patriot, composed by John Williams, was played. "The Rising" by Bruce Springsteen was also played following the speech (Springsteen had endorsed Obama).
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On November 6th, 2012, Barack Obama was re-elected as president of the U.S. The following day, Barack Obama held his victory speech. This paper will analyze and comment on an excerpt of that particular victory speech and the key focus of the analysis will be on the rhetorical effects of the speech. By using many forms of rhetorical tools like Anaphora or Tautology, President Barack Obama manages to give a speech that is full of American ideas of life, like the American Promise, the American Dream and the future. The speech is very similar to the one he did in 2008 at the Democratic Convention, and contains many form of repetition and “between the lines” political views. In the first couple of paragraphs, Barack Obama deliberately begins his sentences with the same couple of words, e.g. “You’ll hear…”, “We want…” or “That’s…” followed by positive ideas about the USA, Americans or what the future will bring. This is when the first rhetorical tool is used, and Barack Obama uses Anaphora by starting his sentences with the same lines over and over again. This is a great way to make his statements stand out both greater than they are and easier to remember.
Moving on from here, Barack Obama talks about the American Spirit, and gives several examples on how the U.S. will have ended the economic crisis and war in a very near future. The future itself is a huge topic in the speech and when talking about it, Barack Obama gently uses as many rhetorical tools as possible to ensure that the message goes through. One of these rhetorical tools is the Apostrophe, for example when he says: “It’s not always a straight line. It’s not always a smooth path.” But also when he is talking about the union straight from the beginning: “It moves forward because of you. It moves forward because…” He talks about the union and the future like they were capable of understanding what was said about them, or if they were alive, and once again, Anaphora is used so all these optimistic ideas will stick. All in all, this entire speech is made up, using Tautology at its best: When reading the speech, you get the sense that Barack Obama is just repeating himself of how well he and his country have been doing lately and how bright the future is for everything and everyone. As previous mentioned this speech is very similar to the one he gave in 2008 at the Democratic Convention. One of the paragraphs from the 2008 speech is almost identical to the victory speech four years later.
In both of the speeches, Barack Obama talks about how great, wealthy and powerful the U.S. is, but says that it is because of the American Spirit and not the military or the universities. Overall the speeches are very alike. Both of the speeches mention the American Dream and how every American should follow up to their promise and how the U.S. has made it to a point of no return where moving forward is the only option. If one was to look at the speech and occasion, they’d probably think, that given it is a victory speech to the entire nation, the speech would automatically become neutral. I say this mainly because he, in the speech, addresses everyone: “And whether I earned your vote or not, I have listened to you…” He is talking to every American, Democratic, Republican – even third parties. Even after considering that, Barack Obama still doesn’t keep the speech neutral as I for one thinks that he should. He manages to put some of his political work into it.
This quote is taken directly from the speech, when Barack Obama is talking about a girl, who was about to die from leukemia: “[…] had it not been for health care reform passing just a few months before the insurance company was about to stop paying for her care.” This is a very sensitive area for everybody, and Barack Obama uses that to his advantage by using pathos which makes most of the listeners feel pity for the little poor girl, and at the same time happiness because of what Barack Obama has done for the U.S. This actually leads the Americans to ask themselves a rhetorical question: If it wasn’t for Barack Obama’s health care, would this little girl have died then? Unfortunately, the answer would with most certainty be yes. There are similar points in the speech, not as obvious though, as when he addresses every American, including the homosexual, or gay as they are referred to, which is very much against most of the Republican Americans.
The speech itself is just what you’d expect from any reasonable leader in the U.S It is a speech where the American Dream is the biggest topic, when being optimistic about the future and then work a little harder is all there is to save the nation. It is a speech that will promise a greater country, and contains a lot of empty promises, just like in the campaigns. Personally, I believe that if Mitt Romney had won the election, the speech he would have given would have been almost identical to this. Of course, there’re some parts where their political views would be different, but all in all I think the essence and rhetorical layout of a victory speech would be pretty much
the same. Just like it were back in 1776 when all of this began.