Franz Yang-Močnik. I am the message and my interpreter
Franz Yang-Močnik, formerly also known as Franz Motschnig, was born in Völkermarkt in 1951 and now lives in Graz. He received his artistic training at the Ortweinschule technical college in Graz from 1970 to 1973. In the past four decades, Franz Yang-Močnik has developed an award-winning œuvre comprising the fields of painting, drawing and sculpture. The Carinthian Museum of Modern Art is now presenting works from the past 40 years, arranged into thematic groups. In his art, Franz Yang-Močnik focuses on humankind, society and his own existence. He is as much a philosopher as a keen observer. He formulates his findings by means of an expressive artistic vocabulary which drastically, impressively, and sometimes also poetically characterises existence in all its facets. In his paintings and drawings, he plumbs the depths man in his existence, as an exposed individual, in joy and in hardship, in fear and in pain, visualising him as an isolated, spiritual, physical and sexual being. He achieves this through a powerful expressive style, evident in his drawing, painting, collage and his figural renderings – the crucifixions, cyclists or café, bar or street scenes –, as well as in his abstract works, which could be "spiritual landscapes" or "existential spaces". The show is completed with literary experiments by the artist which have been published by the Heyn-Verlag, just like his pictorial works, in an accompanying catalogue with texts by Günther Holler-Schuster, Heimo Strempfl, Johannes Rauchenberger and Christine Wetzlinger-Grundnig. Accompanying the exhibition, a text and a sculpture by Gundi Feyrer, referring directly to Franz Yang-Močnik and his work, are displayed in the Museum foyer.
fokus sammlung 05. STILL LIFE
With this year's summer exhibition, the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art continues the topical emphasis on the still life. After showing a wide range of contemporary national and international positions on the still life in the group exhibition "incredibly beautiful. STILL LIFE TODAY" in the spring of 2017, the current exhibition, in the series "focus sammlung" [focus collection] presents still lifes from the collection of the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art, which contains predominantly works from Carinthian artists, but also those of non-local artists. There is a wide variety of different qualities of classic still lifes in the collection. They include not only paintings and graphic pieces, but also photographs, object installations and videos. The works originate in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries and describe many different styles, from Realism and 19th-century Biedermeier over the trends of the Modern era up to the diverse formulations of different means and media within postmodern possibilities. Among the participants of the exhibition are artists from the "Viktring Circle", such as Markus Pernhart, Ludwig Willroider and individual members of the Moro family; Nikolaus Gysis and Albin Egger-Lienz; the painters of the Nötsch circle, Anton Kolig and Anton Mahringer; various protagonists of the interwar period, e.g. Felix Esterl, Georg Pevetz, Herbert Boeckl and Werner Berg; post-war painters, such as Karl Bauer or Maria Lassnig, and contemporary artists, such as Reimo Wukounig, Cornelius Kolig, Bela Ban, Hubert Lobnig, Ernst Logar or Haim Steinbach among others. The works in the exhibition are arranged into 14 rooms according to topics – from flowers and meal still lifes, over animal pieces, sailor still lifes, Vanitas pictures to interiors and pictures of today's material world – and create a tension-filled contrast between their different times and stylistic opposites.
incredibly beautiful. STILL LIFE TODAY
In seven rooms and in the Burgkapelle, the exhibition brings together works by 16 contemporary artists whose approach to rendering the still life results in a surprising variety, using present-day resources and addressing topical questions. This demonstrates that the still life – a genre with a long and varied tradition – evidently remains an interesting theme for the creative artist, and that its continuity and powerful symbolism represent an ideal reference-point for recharging the content and expanding the range of meaning. The diverse works include all media. The genre ranges from the classical arrangement of flowers, comestibles, objects and dead animals (rendered in drawings, paintings, photographs, actual material compositions or filmed images), to plants which spread beyond painted tableaux to form experiential spaces in extensive installations, almost landscapes, appearing as transient phenomena by means of light projections, or which – their nature and shape transformed by modern methods – are re-created in the most diverse objects. Only in the broadest sense do these contemporary artists understand the still life as the traditional genre, the definition of which has been stretched in the post-Modern age. Artists prefer to take up controversial socio-political issues, particularly concerning the economy, nature and the environment, or they engage in subjectively motivated exploration, reflecting on the artistic possibilities of an approach to the topic. Alex Amann I Christy Astuy I Catrin Bolt I Theres Cassini I Dietmar Franz I Sonja Gangl I Bernadette Huber I Richard Kaplenig I Cornelius Kolig I Karin Pliem I Barbara Putz-Plecko I Silvano Rubino I Thomas Stimm I Stefan Waibel I Thilo Westermann The exhibition is accompanied by a publication (approx. 100 pp. Price € 27,-) with a preface by Christine Wetzlinger-Grundnig and texts by authors including Brigitte Borchhardt-Birbaumer, Lucas Gehrmann, Daniela Hammer-Tugendhat, ISBN-978-3-9503572-6-4
fokus sammlung. MEISTERWERKE
In sieben der 14 Ausstellungsräumen zeigt das Museum Moderner Kunst Kärnten eine Dauerpräsentation von ausgewählten Werken der Kunstsammlung des Landes Kärnten/MMKK. Zu sehen sind Bilder der bedeutenden Protagonisten und Protagonistinnen der Kunst in Kärnten im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, von der Biedermeiermalerei über den Kärntner Expressionismus der Zwischenkriegszeit bis zu den avantgardistischen Strömungen nach 1945, von Markus Pernhart und den Brüdern Josef und Ludwig Willroider, dem Nötscher Kreis mit Anton Kolig, Franz Wiegele, Sebastian Isepp und Anton Mahringer; von Herbert Boeckl, Jean Egger oder Werner Berg bis Maria Lassnig, Hans Staudacher, Hans Bischoffshausen, Wolfgang Hollegha, Kurt Kocherscheidt, Bruno Gironcoli oder Kiki Kogelnik u.a.
Herwig Turk. Landschaft = Labor
In the exhibition Landschaft = Labor, the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art/MMKK presents for the first time – in the context of selected international artistic positions – a comprehensive show of works by Austrian artist, Herwig Turk (b 1964 in St. Veit an der Glan). Herwig Turk‘s work is based on his examination of complex scientific themes. The material culture of the high-tech laboratory is seen as a complex environment, in which the significance of the term landscape is reflected; a landscape that, between political determination and industrial instrumentalisation, becomes an experimental laboratory. Thus, the terms "laboratory" and "landscape" blend seamlessly in the exhibition. The artist dissects a variety of tales from laboratory life on the one hand, and on the other, explores civilizational connections and colonial exploitation methods within the concept of landscape. The pictorial and object worlds generated by Herwig Turk thereby refer to traditional patterns of representation, which call in question both stereotypes of landscape painting and forms of portrait painting. In the exhibition at the MMKK, Herwig Turk's work undergoes a contextual expansion, through the dialogue with works from the Museum's collection itself on the one hand, and on the other, through a selection of artworks which hark back to related artistic strategies and have a place in the scientific discourse on art. The exhibition is accompanied by an extensive catalogue with numerous pictures and contributions by Ingeborg Reichle (media theorist, Berlin and Vienna), Christian Höller (art theorist, Essayist, Vienna) and Andreas Krištof (curator, section.a), as well as a prefice by Christine Wetzlinger-Grundnig (curatorin, director MMKK) published by Verlag für moderne Kunst. Artists Herwig Turk im Dialog mit Herbert Boeckl (A) | The Center for Land Use Interpretation (US) | Thomas Feuerstein (A) | Cornelius Kolig (A) | Gerhard Lang (D) | Sonia Leimer (I) | Kira O’Reilly (GB) & Jennifer Willet (CAN) | Hannes Rickli (CH) | Meina Schellander (A) | Nicole Six/Paul Petritsch (A) | Gerhard Treml & Leo Calice (A)
Arnold Clementschitsch. 1887-1970
Arnold Clementschitsch (1887–1970) studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna from 1909 and from 1911 in Munich, where he made contact with the art movement "Der Blaue Reiter" [the blue rider]. In 1913, he married the Munich painter Maria Bauernschmidt and that same year his only son, Arnold, was born. From 1915 to 1918 Clementschitsch served in the army and then commuted between his residences at the Ossiacher See [lake] and Vienna. He made influential friends such as the painters Herbert Boeckl and Felix Esterl, and later the author Michael Guttenbrunner. As early as 1920, Clementschitsch stood out with his first group exhibition at the Vienna Secession. In 1928 he took part in the World Fair in Barcelona and in 1932 in the Venice Biennale. After World War II, the artist was among the founders of the Carinthian Institute of Fine Arts, which he directed until 1947. His students included Kurt Schmidt and Hans Staudacher. Clementschitsch was awarded the Grand Austrian State Prize and was also known as an author of books and literary essays. His extensive œuvre, which developed over six decades, includes portraits, nudes, landscapes, street scenes and horses, which also feature in the exhibition. As a painter, Clementschitsch was seen very much as an individualist in the Austrian context. In his work, he varied elements of Impressionism or Expressionism with New Objectivity, which certainly shows his modernity. Based on the dissertation by Leonore Lukeschitsch and in cooperation with the Museum of the Nötsch Circle (where a corresponding exhibition is showing), and according to extensive new research and archive material, a scientific catalogue of works was compiled, documenting some 900 paintings. The catalogue is being published in a monograph accompanying the exhibition and contains written contributions by Matthias Boeckl, Rosemarie Burgstaller, Sigrid Diewald, Martina Gabriel, Leonore Lukeschitsch, Heimo Strempfl and Christine Wetzlinger-Grundnig.
fokus sammlung. MEISTERWERKE
Ab 7. April 2016 sind acht der 14 Ausstellungsräume des Museums Moderner Kunst Kärnten einer Dauerpräsentation von ausgewählten Werken der Kunstsammlung des Landes Kärnten/MMKK gewidmet. Zu sehen sind Bilder der bedeutenden Protagonisten und Protagonistinnen der Kunst in Kärnten im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, von der Biedermeiermalerei über den Kärntner Expressionismus der Zwischenkriegszeit bis zu den avantgardistischen Strömungen nach 1945, von Markus Pernhart und den Brüdern Josef und Ludwig Willroider, dem Nötscher Kreis mit Anton Kolig, Franz Wiegele, Sebastian Isepp und Anton Mahringer; von Herbert Boeckl, Jean Egger oder Werner Berg bis Maria Lassnig, Hans Staudacher, Hans Bischoffshausen, Wolfgang Hollegha, Kurt Kocherscheidt, Bruno Gironcoli oder Kiki Kogelnik u.a.
Eva Paulitsch & Uta Weyrich. #CRESCENDO
Valentin Oman. Retrospectives
Valentin Oman, one of the best-known Austrian artist personalities, was born in St. Stefan/Šteben near Villach/Beljak in 1935. He attended the Marianum Tanzenberg/Plešivec, studied painting and graphic arts at the Vienna Academy of Applied Arts, and trained in graphic reproduction with Riko Debenjak at the Academy of Fine Arts in Laibach/Ljubljana. He now lives and works in Vienna and in Finkenstein/Bekštanj in Carinthia. These retrospectives offer a review of his work over the past fifty years. His impressively extensive œuvre concentrates predominantly on painting and graphic arts, with particular emphasis on intricate, experimental expansion and combination of these artistic resources; his themes are human existence and the question of being, transience and transcendence. He has developed a distinctive pictorial vocabulary centred on the human figure and realised in exceptional techniques and evocative materials that formulate the figure as a symbol of a self-transcending metaphysical dimension. It appears, apart from traditional graphic works, in complex murals, material pictures and collages, and sculptures of metal and glass. This exhibition has collected examples ranging from the 1960s to today, including works from the Hermagoras Collection and the MMKK; there is also a variety of travel pictures and landscapes, documentations of his countless works for public space, and an installation referring to his commitment to bilingual place-names in Carinthia – a particular concern of his, since he belongs to the Slovenian ethnic group. Showing subsequently in the Vienna Künstlerhaus and the Božidar Jakac Art Museum in Kostanjevica na Krki in Slovenia, the exhibition will be accompanied by a publication of 226 pages, with copious illustrations and essays by Martin Traxl, Milena Zlatar and others, in German, Slovenian and English.
ZEITMISCHER - Johannes Domenig
(Kooperationsprojekt) Eine Zusammenschau von aktuellem Kunstschaffen und historischem Kulturgut – zeitgenössische KünstlerInnen im Dialog mit römischen Steindenkmälern aus dem Landesmuseum Kärnten Ein Kooperationsprojekt von Museum für Quellenkultur, Landesmuseum für Kärnten und Museum Moderner Kunst Kärnten
Wolfgang Walkensteiner. next to nothing
Wolfgang Walkensteiner was born in 1949 in Klagenfurt and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna and graduated with Max Weiler in 1973. Since 1972, he has been a member of the Carinthian Kunstverein and since 1994 of the Vienna Society of Artists. In 1976 he represented Austria at the Biennale Internationale d’Arte in Venice. Over recent decades the artist has developed an extensive heterogeneous œuvre divided into work phases which differ clearly from each other in technique as well as form. The content of his exploration is consistent. In a profound existential and ontological discourse, Wolfgang Walkensteiner probes analytically, following Martin Heidegger, the basic questions of human existence – his own as well as existence in general. This enquiry initially puts man, often his own person, then animals at the centre of his work. References are frequently to mythological figures and narratives or types common in contemporary society and their significance is universally valid. In the past decade, Walkensteiner has extended the horizon of his research beyond the created being into the micro- and macrocosmic dimension, where he explores intellectual spiritual and painterly realities in a pictorial cognitive process, in order to reveal basal structures of being in the depths of matter and the vastness of space. This results in concentrations of philosophical and psychological, rational and emotional aspects – ultimately works of his own reality, fantastical, formal constructions evincing technical mastery and impressive suggestive power. In ten rooms, the exhibition presents paintings, drawings, sculptures and installations from the past seven years, offering profound insight into his latest period of work, and demonstrating the artistic maturity, unremitting intellectual and creative power, impressive eloquence and creative enthusiasm of an unparalleled Austrian painter.
Parallel zur Personale von Wolfgang Walkensteiner wird in den letzten drei Räumen des Ausstellungsparcours eine Selektion aus der Kunstsammlung des Landes Kärnten/MMKK vorgestellt, die inhaltlich auf die Hauptausstellung ausgerichtet ist. Unter dem Titel „fokus sammlung. BIS WALKENSTEINER“ werden einzelne Werke der bedeutendsten KünstlerInnen der Sammlung gezeigt, die als Vorläufer des Künstlers in der Kärntner Malerlandschaft des 19. sowie der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts anzusehen sind.
(Buchpräsentation und Ausstellung im Foyer) VERRÜCKT. VERSPIELT. VERSCHROBEN. UNSERE SPÄTMODERNE GESELLSCHAFT | Texte und Bilder von Manfred Prisching, Bilder: Franz Yang-Močnik
The Other Side – mirrors and reflections in contemporary art
The exhibition highlights various current aesthetic and symbolic aspects of the reflecting surface. From ancient times right up to the present day, it has been symbolically significant throughout the history of art and culture. In the ancient cultures, the mirror represents the image of the soul, offering truth and (self-) knowledge. In mediaeval European art it stands for chastity and sagacity, as well as for vanity and lust. The mystics regarded it as a sign of revelation, the Baroque as a symbol of transience. It is seen as a medium of self-perception, as a tool for egocentric self-duplication, and as a cultic object for occult evocation of paranormal powers. Its metaphorical meanings are diverse and contradictory. In contemporary art, there are many reasons for the popularity of the mirror. In an increasingly secular age, it brings into play the levels of transcendence and magic, also emphasising the aspect of narcissistic self-aggrandisement that has become a guiding social principle within the media culture of casting shows, model contests and talk shows. In the 20th century, the mirror became emancipated from an object of representation to actual material or even the subject itself. It is both vehicle and focus of philosophical and psychological study. The exhibition consists of objects and sculptures, installations, photographs, videos and films by artists including John Armleder, Pierre Bismuth, Jean Cocteau, Ira Cohen, Elmgreen & Dragset, Markus Hofer, Joan Jonas, Birgit Jürgenssen, Brigitte Kowanz, Elke Kruystufek, Friedl Kubelka, Hans Kupelwieser, Liz Larner, Inge Morath, Bruno Peinado, Norbert Pfaffenbichler, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Cindy Sherman, Gerold Tagwerker, Franz West, Markus Wilfling, Erwin Wurm and Heimo Zobernig. An exhibition by the Vienna Belvedere Curated by Edelbert Köb and Thomas Miessgang
SHARE - Too Much History, More Future
The art project SHARE − Too Much History, MORE Future was initiated by the then Federal Ministry of Education, Art and Culture, now the culture division of the Federal Chancellery. It evolved from the spirit of the decade-long friendly cooperation between Austria and Bosnia-Herzegovina and is intended to strengthen this bond. With the support of the Sarajevo – Heart of Europe Foundation, and thus of the European Union, we aim to make 2014 a year of intensive dialogue and reconciliation with the distressing past, to take us into a future of solidarity. The exhibition presents video works by contemporary artists from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Austria, dealing with a variety of personal and collective memories and posing questions on the past, present and future. The films are also available as video editions, and a scientific catalogue documents the project. The exhibitions, presentations and discussions take us to Sarajevo, Trebinje, Banja Luka, Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Vienna, Mons and Strasbourg. At the MMKK, these video works are juxtaposed with works from the collection of the Province of Carinthia and thus put in an expanded context, and re-charged with regional content and associations. Participating artists: Gordana Anđelić-Galić, Catrin Bolt, Igor Bošnjak, Mladen Bundalo, Marina Gržinić & Aina Šmid, Ana Hoffner, Anna Jermolaewa, Adela Jušić, Šejla Kamerić, Ernst Logar, Mladen Miljanović, Hermann Peseckas & Tommy Schneider, Irena Sladoje | Birgit Bachmann, Johannes Domenig, Ines Doujak, Josef Enz, Othmar Jaindl, Maria Lassnig, Valentin Oman, Eva Paulitsch, Ferdinand Penker, Wolfgang Reichmann, Fritz Russ, Meina Schellander and Ernst Vollbehr. Curator: Annemarie Türk | Project management: Karin Zimmer
SOME OF THE THINGS I DID 2010-2013 (Ausstellung im Foyer und Buchpräsentation) Claus Prokop, 1966 in Klagenfurt geboren. Studium der Architektur an der TU Wien, Studium der Malerei an der Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien und an The Cooper Union New York. In den letzten Jahren, neben der Malerei und dem Bau von Objekten, vermehrt im Bereich Kunst am Bau tätig. Präsentiert werden neben dem Katalog Entwurfsmodelle und ein Multiple mit Souvenir-Charakter für LE TOUR – LA TOUR sowie die im Katalog dokumentierte Materialsammlung mit dem Titel THINGS WE NEVER DID. Der Katalog dokumentiert Projekte der letzten Jahre, unter anderem LE TOUR – LA TOUR bei der Berufsschule für Tourismus in Warmbad Villach, Projekte für das Bürgerservicezentrum Ossiach, die Lymphklinik Wolfsberg oder die ÖVAG Wien.
Peter Krawagna was born in Klagenfurt in 1937. He studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna and at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. The artist is a representative of the "abstraction of nature " – a specifically Austrian development originating with Herbert Boeckl in the 1920s. Krawagna emphasises a style of painting based on the discoveries of Modernism, and drawing on the achievements of Paul Cézanne, who renders his motifs on canvas directly from nature – en plein air – keeping as close as possible to the visual impression. Most important is the immediate impression, the optical phenomena of the moment – particularly the light conditions which significantly determine the colour perception. The aim is to create a pictorial equivalent of the motif. Peter Krawagna takes the visible aspect, everyday objects as a starting point and renders them in painting or drawing. On canvas or paper, the familiar visual object becomes an abstract composition which is no longer concerned with depicting or describing integrative form, material condition or conveying motifs through their surfaces, but rather with rendering the visual appearance of objects and specific physical phenomena. The starting-point for the artistic process is concentrated and selective perception; the result is an abstract colour-form composition. The exhibition designed for 11 rooms of the MMKK, presents works from all periods of the artist's œuvre – from the 1960s until today – and is accompanied by an specialist publication with contributions by Christian Kravagna, Peter Weiermair and Christine Wetzlinger-Grundnig.
fokus sammlung. BIS KRAWAGNA
Today, the art collection of the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art comprises more than 5000 works from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. It documents the work of Carinthian artists in a national and international context, as well as the exhibitions of the Museum. The series fokus sammlung consists of regular exhibitions featuring different aspects of the collection. Parallel to Peter Krawagna's solo exhibition, a selection of works from the Museum's collection which relate to the main exhibition, is on show in the last three rooms of the exhibition. A series of exhibitions entitled fokus sammlung. BIS KRAWAGNA shows individual works by the most significant artists who are seen as the artist's precursors in Carinthian painting of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Among them are members of the Viktring Artists' Circle such as Markus Pernhart as a representative of Biedermeier landscape painting and the brothers Josef and Ludwig Willroider as forerunners of Modernism, the painters from the Nötsch Circle, Anton Kolig, Franz Wiegele, Anton Mahringer and Sebastian Isepp, as well as protagonists from the inter-War period including Herbert Boeckl, Felix Esterl, Jean Egger, Arnold Clementschitsch and Werner Berg. This accompanying exhibition continually represents the Museum's collection on the one hand, and on the other presents a meaningful contribution to Peter Krawagna's exhibition, thus putting it into a broader context.
Edgar Knoop 1964 - 2014
edgar knoop is artist and colour theorist. from 1972 to 2000, he taught experimental and applied colour theory at the munich academy. research into colour theory, the study of colour systems, the science of colour contrasts, the phenomenon light and light technology form the basis of his artistic work. subsequently, since the 1960s, he has continuously been building up a stringent œuvre which unites art, science and technology, using an experimental and interdisciplinary approach. colour and light determine the further development as constant aspects which manifest themselves alternately with form, space and movement in a broad spectrum of two- and three-dimensional works. the work is expressed along the lines of concrete art, op art and kinetics in the media of collage, sculpture, installation, photography, as well as on a large scale in the related disciplines of tapestry and art in public space. knoop's means are reduced and concise. they are restricted to basic pictorial elements and a clear, rational formal vocabulary. his materials and methods are modern, up to date and consistent with current scientific knowledge. the work aims at a specific effect and is based on exact planning, mathematical and technical calculation. edgar knoop combines the work of the artist with that of the researcher or engineer. he constructs works fluctuating between artistic object and technical/scientific apparatus. the exhibition and the accompanying publication provide an overview of all his creative periods. the heterogeneous works are arranged as a meaningful whole, so that their specific relevance and their overall logical connection are readily discernible. Edgar Knoop lives und works since 2002 in Seeboden / Millstätter See, Austria.
Nebelland hab ich gesehen* [fogland have I seen] On the relationship between art and literature
Ever since competition has existed between the arts – since antiquity – mutual interest has been manifest between the various disciplines. There are numerous examples in art history, where artists have ventured into literature and writers into art, as well as countless double talents seeking equivalent expression in their second field. There has evidently always been, besides a dialogical relationship, also an emphatic one between artists and writers committed to the same task – that of expressing an idea through an appropriate work. In this respect, art and literature can be seen as media of equal status in a common aesthetic context. Today, the arts have left traditional hierarchies behind and use the each other's potential for their own ends. Image and text move closer together, interlace and lead to an expanded and more profound representation and force of expression. One becomes a model for the other – a challenge, an impulse, an inspiration, a fund of resources. The exhibition shows 16 current artistic positions, presenting various types of dialogue between the fine arts and literature. The focus is on works originating in the fine arts, inspired and influenced by literary sources and methods. They deal in the first place with artistic strategies drawing on literature, and in the second with literary forms and expressions drawing on the fine arts. The works make use of all visual media and are included in a comprehensive overall concept in a dramaturgical context determined by visual, auditory and performative forms of representation. * Ingeborg Bachmann
Lori Hersberger "Totem"
skulpture and chrome steel. Installation in the courty ard of the museum of modern art carinthia, Klagenfurt. opening july 7, 2013, 11 a.m.
fokus sammlung 04. Tiere
ART PROTECTS YOU Jochen Traar [nichts und alles oder]
Jochen Traar was born in 1960 in Essen (Germany) and grew up in Carinthia. He studied with Bruno Gironcoli at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. Despite the fact that he uses a heterogeneous and diverse range of artistic possibilities, the artist sees himself as a sculptor whose work relates to a wider concept of sculpture. His work ranges from sculptural works and installations in the conventional three-dimensional sense – usually based on simple everyday materials and objects with which he explores the conditions and resources of spatial design – to quasi social sculptures as participatory, site- and situation-specific interventions and projects in public space which is devoted fundamentally to strategy and structure in a social context. Jochen Traar approaches the socio-political reality of our life-world and his own with brilliance and humour, taking apart and analysing its patterns and relations in order to convey perceptions and experiences to the viewer. This direct involvement surprises and confuses the viewer, prompting him – even considering the entertainment value of the artistic mise-en-scène – to cast a critical eye behind the deceptive façade of private and public everyday life. The banality of the first glance proves effective, on reflection, in subtly exposing the underlying substance. The current exhibition presents various work series from the past two decades – all unusual results of an extremely unconventional artistic practice. The content of the exhibition is summarised and documented in an accompanying publication with contributions by Bernd Liepold-Mosser, Reinhard Kacianka, Andreas Krištof, Martin Kušej and Christine Wetzlinger-Grundnig.
Fritz Steinkellner (b 1942), who became known in the early 1970s with his screen prints, is one of those prominent Austrian artists who have always worked on the margins of the art world and who have continued uncompromisingly on their chosen path. Far from the current of ruling trends, Steinkellner has spent the past four decades developing a convincingly unique œuvre, the qualities of which have yet to be discovered. His extensive, complex work comprises drawing, painting, prints and object art. In various phases, the central questions of object and image, transformation and metamorphosis, ultimately of perception and cognition are examined in constantly new variants of meaning and technical execution, the artistic resources being taken to the limits of possibility. The element of transformation is central to his work. As the motif changes from one medium to another, altering the focus, an overwhelming range of expressive forms emerges. Fritz Steinkellner is seeking a means of expression suitable for exploring all the possibilities of artistic work. The intellectual consideration is examined using artistic resources and translated into a visual work. The fascinating complexity of his work integrated into a subtle system of intellectual and formal disciplines is impressively presented in the exhibition. Collected here are works from all phases of his œuvre arranged so as to demonstrate effectively and clearly not only its range and depth, beyond all boundaries of form and content, but also the essential connections between the works.
fokus sammlung 03. LANDSCAPE
Landscape – along with historical painting, portrait and still life – is the most important painting genre, considered in Europe as a separate genre only since the 17th century. Its historical development shows a wide range of influences and changes, always in connection with the respective representational intention, and based on changing conditions in society, politics, culture and philosophy. Landscape painting refers to the pictorial representation of the natural world, or of an excerpt thereof. Frequent motifs are scenes of plains, forests, parks, rivers, villages, towns, sea, lakes, coastal or mountain regions. These are reflected in the exhibition along with contemporary treatments of the theme, formulated in abstract painting and constructed landscapes in photography or film. The exhibition comprises some 160 works from the art collection of the Province of Carinthia/MMKK, documenting various positions in landscape renderings during the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. They give a representative cross-section of the attributes of the collection, presenting a broad spectrum of heterogeneous artistic concepts. A separate section is devoted to the 19th century, during which the foundations were laid for the Modern Movement; it contains works by Max and Eduard von Moro, Markus Pernhart and the brothers Ludwig and Josef Willroider. Works from the 20th and 21st centuries are grouped in individual rooms, under the above-mentioned headings, offering visitors the opportunity for an enjoyable and interesting walk to experience the whole variety and potential of the genre.
In an extensive solo exhibition, the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art is showing the complex and multifaceted work of Hermann Nitsch – one of the most important and controversial contemporary Austrian artists. The exhibition shows works from all the periods of the extensive yet extremely compelling œuvre, which is the culmination of the total artwork, the Theatre of Orgies and Mysteries. It refers to all disciplines and resources of sensuous expression used by the universal artist Hermann Nitsch to appeal to all five senses and combine them in an extreme overall experience, aiming towards heightening and orgiastic intensification of feeling and perception. The overview ranges from early paintings and drawings from the 1950s – in which the artist recreated representations of religious figures by historic predecessors such as Rembrandt and Tintoretto – through action paintings, splatter paintings and picture objects, right up to current paintings. Special attention is given to his graphic art, ranging from informal drawings through architectural drawings for the Theatre of Orgies and Mysteries, to his breathtaking prints. Also included are photographic and film documentations, as well as action relics, music, scriptural scores, colour spectrums and a collection of scents which complete the survey of all areas of this total artwork. A special highlight is the Burgkapelle, which Hermann Nitsch uses – in a almost idealised way – to reflect the religious aspects of his own works against the background of baroque frescoes by Josef Ferdinand Fromiller. The majority of the works in the exhibition are the property the artist. Numerous other works are on loan from Austrian and international, public and private collections.
Collection Sigrid and Franz Wojda. Living with Contemporary Art.
Sigrid and Franz Wojda were both born in Carinthia and settled in Vienna and Burgenland. Over the past 40 years, through informed and consistent efforts, they have acquired a considerable collection of Austrian and international abstract contemporary art – one of the most significant private collections in Austria. With 146 works by 57 artists, the current exhibition is to represent the focus of the collection which refers to conceptual, reductionist, constructive and analytical painting. The exhibited works represent the core of Sigrid and Franz Wojda's collection which comprises mainly paintings and graphics, but also sculptures, installations, animations and videos. The works range from classics of minimalist abstract painting, e.g. by Josef Albers or Robert Barry, through those of later internationally stars such as François Morellet, Helmut Federle, Günter Umberg, Imi Knoebel and Katharina Grosse, right up to Austrian artists Franz West, Heimo Zobernig, Gerwald Rockenschaub, Brigitte Kowanz, Erwin Bohatsch, Helmut Scheibl and Herbert Brandl, well-known beyond their native country. The exhibition was designed in collaboration with Sigrid and Franz Wojda and Edelbert Köb. After embarking on the project with enormous enthusiasm some two years ago, Sigrid Wojda unexpectedly fell ill and last July, during the design phase, she passed away. To our great regret, she was unable to contribute her extensive knowledge to the completion of the project, nor did she live to experience the final exhibition. As an expression of respect and appreciation, we would like to dedicate the exhibition project and this catalogue to Sigrid Wojda.
MELITTA MOSCHIK. Reality Shapes
The title of the exhibithion alludes to the design principle of Melitta Moschik's œuvre, in which the artist takes up visual signs and codes of reality – which in today's mediatised world we use for both concrete and virtual communication – and transfers them to the context of art. Melitta Moschik takes equally into account scientific positions and everyday cultural phenomena, transforming them into objects and installations, in which the reduced formal vocabulary focuses on the essential information structures of their content. The exhibition is organised retrospectively and shows series of works from 1991 to 2011, which deal with awareness and representation of reality. The puristic works – computer-generated, rendered in industrial materials, machine-made and characterised by technological aesthetics – deal with scientific, socio-cultural and medial phenomena, and are situated in a field defined by art, new media and architecture.
The exhibition consists of fifteen current, contemporary Austrian and international positions of geometric, abstract minimalist art. The contributions represent heterogeneous individual positions which are then linked in such a way that an overview of the great variety of present-day possibilities and trends within the constructivist spectrum can be conveyed. The works are mostly inspired by diverse approaches, intentions and historical references. They are linked by a stylistic motivation towards non-figurative, geometric composition – a possible variant of artistic treatment, rooted in early-20th-century constructivist or concrete trends and still valid – and the century-long history of its development, a frame of reference available to artists today. The selection focuses on recent works in a wide variety of media, ranging form painting through drawing, film, photography, object- and room installation, to animation, (colour/light) projections and acoustical experiments. Modern and unusual materials and resources, such as plexiglass, blacklight and polyester or intricate works of folded paper and massive folded felt creations, are juxtaposed, providing a surprising, exciting and varying image of an art form, still to be discovered in Austria and established in all its diversity and significance. Artists: Hellmut Bruch | Inge Dick | Sabina Hörtner | Manuel Knapp | Suse Krawagna | Eric Kressnig | Zorka L-Weiss | Manfred Mörth | Ingo Nussbaumer | Harald Pompl | Miriam Prantl | Regine Schumann | Gerold Tagwerker | Mar Vicente | Peter Weber
focus collection 02. POINTS OF VIEW. Images of mankind
opening: Wednesday, june 8 2011, 7:30 pm | ANSICHTSSACHEN. Menschenbilder [Points of view. Images of mankind] is the second exhibition in the series fokus sammlung [focus on the collection], which aims to review the art collection of the Province and to present it to the public in regular exhibitions. The idea is to show items from the collection in variously themed annual exhibitions and from different perspectives, so that the quality and the variety of the collection can be demonstrated. The image of mankind is bedsides landscape, the principal genre in the collection. The motif of the human figure has held a lasting attraction; the human being – whether in his outward form or in his state of mind, as a physical or an emotional benig, as an individual or in a social context, as an aesthetic or a rational object – has always, in various ways, presented a challenge for artistic examination. The exhibition will present a cross-section of the genre in some 130 works by 60 artists, in the broadest possible spectrum of media, from painting, drawnig and photography to sculptural and electronic techniques. The contributions – from the Biedermeier portrait to present-day representations – are arranged according to the classic categories of portraiture: child, family, female, male, self-portrait, female and male nude, divided into single, double or group picture, and with themes arising from the collection itself. Works from periods up to 200 years apart are juxtaposed; characteristics and qualities are compared, and at the same time a short history given of the development in each theme.
CUT Silhouettes. 20 contemporary positions
opening: wednesday march 16 2011, 7 pm The cut-out, found in a wide variety of cultures, has developed over more than a thousand years, starting in China. In the history of European culture, verifiable from about 1600 BC, the art flourished in the 18th- and 19th-century silhouettes. Subsequently, apart from its minor role in artistic experiment, there was little interest in the genre, which survived mainly in traditional craftwork. Only in recent years has it regained relevance and attracted increasing attention in the art world, interesting for the manifold creative possibilities it offers artists, who now exploit these to the full, with innovative interpretations. The ancient art has almost completely broken free of its traditional appearance – the small, two-dimensional paper silhouette –, to conquer three-dimensional space, in which it is realised in a wide range of modern materials, techniques and forms: from the classic paper cut-out to plexiglass, plastic and metal, or textile tableaux. It may appear as a picture, a sculptural object or an installation, subtly lit and staged, projected as a shadow theatre, or as a dynamised image in film and video. In the contemporary context, the cut-out has risen to become a fascinating medium in its own right, far exceeding its original purpose of mimetic or idyllic renderings of the real world, or of pure ornament. Now charged with new significance, it is accepted – beyond all romantic and tradition-bound notions – as a legitimate resource for critical treatment of current artistic and social questions. | ARTISTS: Gabriele Basch, Christian Boltanksi, Ulla von Brandenburg, Felix Droese, Jeanne Faust, Katharina Hinsberg, Werner Hofmeister, Julia Horstmann, Lisa Huber, Gudrun Kampl, William Kentridge, Birgit Knoechl, Philip Loersch, Rupprecht Matthies, Charlotte Mc Gowan Griffin, Melitta Moschik, Olaf Nicolai, Annette Schröter, Stefan Thiel, Kara Walker The exhibition CUT. Cut-outs is realised in collaboration with the Hamburg Kunsthalle.
opening: december 15, 2010, 7 p.m. Since the 1970s Ferdinand Penker has consistently developed a unified œuvre based on constructive and concrete ideas formulated under the influence of American Colour Field Painting, Minimal Art and European reductive trends. Painting, its resources, its potential and its general framework are scrutinised and expanded within a self-reflexive process. The work is distinguished by its analytical quality, and through the continuity and relevance of the discourse, which gives the artist a unique position within Austrian Modernist painting. During 1970s, Penker devised a vocabulary and a methodology which are widely varied and gradually intensified within a work. Central to the artistic work are the line – derived from the study of space and architecture – , the structure, and the painting of these components. The serial repetition of identical lines forms two-dimensional arrangements – abstract compositions resulting formally from his method of specific scriptural application of paint, homogenous, minimalist and tending towards the monochrome. The decisive feature is the 1990s extension of painting into three-dimensionality which breaks with the autonomy of the picture and expands the range of possible treatment. Ferdinand Penker was born in Klagenfurt in 1950 and studied medicine and art history in Graz from 1968 to 1972. From 1977 to 1987 he held a teaching post at the University of California in Davis. He now lives and works in Preding, Styria.
HEIMAT | DOMOVINA
The concept of "home" [Heimat] has undergone continuous change over the years – from its original definition as a geographical region, its legally relevant significance in relation to property, through its romantic definition, from its transformation from a private to a political concept, all the way to its ideological and emotionally-charged associations – thus becoming an instrument for reflecting historical, social and psychological processes. The exhibition Heimat | Domovina is intended to initiate a contemporary discourse on the subject of "home", carrying out an appraisal of the term on the basis of works by 16 artists from Carinthia and Slovenia. The results, belonging to every area – private, social, historical, political –, show a broad, heterogeneous spectrum of possible approaches to the concept, at the beginning of the 21st century, characterised as it is by globalisation, multi-culturalism, mobility, final location and migration. At the same time, the works show clearly what "home" can signify for the individual, what problems and what advantages may be entailed, what affects the individual, presenting challenges or provoking criticism, as well as what conveys confidence and security or gives rise to nostalgia. Generally, the question raised concerns an up-to-date appreciation of the term "home", apart from its territorial associations – not least the way in which we deal with it, considering on the one hand how it has been horribly misused in our history, and on the other, how it has become well-nigh obsolete in a world highly networked and without boundaries. Artists: JOSEF DABERNIG | INES DOUJAK | WERNER HOFMEISTER | IRWIN | CORNELIUS KOLIG |ERNST LOGAR | INA LOITZL | EVA PETRIČ | TADEJ POGAČAR | MEINA SCHELLANDER | NICOLE SIX & PAUL PETRITSCH | NIKA ŠPAN | JOCHEN TRAAR | PETRA VARL | INGE VAVRA | REIMO WUKOUNIG
focus collection 01. Painting and Drawing
focus collection is the title of a new exhibition series which regularly selects different aspects of the collection for closer examination. The aim is to explore the variety and the quality of the entire collection by placing the works in different contexts, showing them as dynamic and constantly changing, according to their nature. At the same time, the Museum is subject to continuous scrutiny of its central responsibility. The current exhibition deals with painting and drawing, the relation between the two genres and their development over the past 150 years. This is demonstrated in a selection of works – many of which are shown here for the first time – by 17 artists with a variety of methods, themes and approaches. The genres are displayed in the whole spectrum of their possibilities, from the ancillary tool of mimetic imaging to autonomous, self-referential resources, and in naturalistic, representational, figurative, abstract and non-representational contexts. Through the instructive chronological concept, the collection is also presented in the context of art history, and attention brought to the cross-regional relevance of the Carinthian artists' work. Artists: Hans Bischoffshausen | Hans (Jean) Egger | Bruno Gironcoli | Giselbert Hoke | Wolfgang Hollegha | Gustav Januš | Anton Kolig | Kurt Kocherscheidt | Alois Köchl | Peter Krawagna | Maria Lassnig | Franz Yang-Močnik | Valentin Oman | Hans Staudacher | Franz Wiegele | Ludwig Willroider | Reimo Wukounig
Herbert Boeckl. Retrospective
This exhibition of Herbert Boeckl's work surveys fifty years of modern art production. Despite the historical vicissitudes of two world wars, the artist – a native Carinthian resident in Vienna – maintained throughout decades a continuous development of his project of a modern movement drawing on the Central European and Mediterranean tradition. Several periods of work span a rich spectrum, from the Vienna Secession artists' use of line, through the 1920s reception of the work of Paul Cézanne and the expressive realism of the 1930s, right up to his post-war planes of colour inspired by cubism. With the early Carinthian landscapes, the drawings and paintings of the Anatomy series (1931), and the major cycles from the post-1945 period, the exhibition shows many highlights from this extremely complex œuvre, linking the ideals of the classical modern movement in the era of Egon Schiele and early Oskar Kokoschka right through the international crisis of the avant-garde in the 1930s and '40s with the beginning of "globalised" production in the 1960s. As professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna (1935-64) and an influential personality in the art world of the Federal State (1934-38) and the early Second Republic (after 1945), Boeckl – one of the few officially recognised and valued modern Austrian painters – always provided a link between the Austrian art world and international developments. With his mural in the Church of Maria Saal (1929), the great altar triptych (1934-44) and the frescos in the Benedictine Abbey of Seckau (1952-60), Boeckl also made important contributions to modern sacred art
Contemporary Photography. New Austrian Positions
The exhibition is contemporary is focussing on photography in Austria, presenting photo artists who are either native to Carinthia or already represented in the Museum collection, as well as on young Austrian photo artists. It gives an insight into current positions and works by graduates of the photography classes at the Vienna Adacemy of Fine Arts and the University of Applied Arts. Thematically arranged the works of the younger generation is placed in a context-related dialogue with photographs by establishe artists. The themes range from socio-political questions and critical perception of the immediate living environment to new approaches to landscape and portraits. Here the focus is on photography as image, and its surface structure between fiction and reality. Film, video and cartoon animation - closely connected twith the photographic image - are represented as well as are interdisciplinary approaches in combination with photography like installative staging, sculpture and room installation as a common trend to many works. Overall, the exhibition shows the wide range of themes, motifs and technical possibilities available in contemporary photography.
On Normality. Art from Serbia 1989-2001
Curator: Dejan Sretenović in cooperation with MoCAB Museum of Contemporary Art Belgrad opening: Thursday, July 2, 7 p.m. The exhibition is based on the show On Normality that was showcased in 2005 in the Museum of Contemporary Art Belgrade. That show is generally regarded as cultural-political milestone in Serbia after the era of Milošević . After the last "Yugoslaw Documenta" in Sarajevo in the summer 1989 and the breakup of Yugoslavia, it represents a first display of ambitious contemporary art on an institutionalised level. It entails a first comprehensive combination of critical artistic positions. which emerged during the Milošević-regime and reflect this era, referring directly or indirectly to political events. In this way, the show achieves that artistic reflection and intellectual processing of a decade marked by wars, ethnic cleansings and general decay that is essential for a socio-political return to so-called normality. The exhibition in MMKK dicusses the immediate past of an European neighbour in view of its artistic production, and thematizes the role and the possibilities of free artistic articulation in hostile ideological surroundings. The attention is drawn towards structures within which political and artistic aspects interfere, and in which remarkable artistic positions reflect collective and personal attitudes and appearances. ARTISTS: Milan Aleksić, Association Apsolutno, Biljana Đurđević, Uroš Đurić, Adrian Kovacs, Zoran Marinković, Goranka Matić, Era Milivojević, Zoran Naskovski, Vladimir Nikolić, Tanja Ostojič, Neša Paripović, Vesna Pavlović, Bálint Szombathy, Talent, Zoran Todorović, Dragoljub Raša Todosijević, Milica Tomić
Peter Zimmermann. All You Need
With the advent of new image technologies, the so-called New Media, political, social and artistic paradigms were re-negotiated with reference to visual systems. In his creative work since the mid-1980s, Peter Zimmermann (b 1956) has dealt systematically with the topical question of a satisfactory construction for contemporary art. In the works shown here, covering a period of some twenty years, two reflexive strategies become apparent: the early works (mid-1980s – early 1990s) are based primarily on the concept of covering and simulation, whereas his many "blob paintings" (mid-1990s onwards) derive from a mediatisation of the themes. The focus is on cognitive knowledge of the cultural definitive power of visual pictorial methods. Zimmermann uses various simulative techniques (covering, sampling, remixing) to practise an aesthetic of illusion. The materiality and sensuousness of the symbols are revealed as elements of resistance to semiological legibility, and the images appear as seductively shining events in which the instant of contingency presents itself as a paradigm of the Modern Movement.
Arnulf Rainer. Retrospective. Painting in order to end all painting
With almost 100 works, this retrospective gives a representative cross-section of the œuvre of Arnulf Rainer, one of the internationally most significant and radical artists of the modern period. The exhibition begins with the earliest, gesturally abstract "centralisations", shown by the artist in the Klagenfurt Künstlerhaus in 1951. In the mid-1950s, Rainer began his series of "overpaintings", executed on works by friends and on historical prints. His treatment of photographs represents a second basic form of reworking. At the end of the 1970s, there followed the death masks, finger-paintings, Cross paintings and tondi. Rainer kept returning to the themes of death and religion, presented in a dynamic interweaving of form and content. His art initiated a prominent and radical confrontation with Austrian tradition and the European/American discourse on the modern period.
K08 - emanzipation-confrontation - temporary art in Carinthia after 1945
With a survey of the development of art from 1945 to the present, the Museum of Modern Art Carinthia is the heart of this major exhibition. The turn to abstract painting is documented with works by Hans Bischoffshausen, Johann Fruhmann, Wolfgang Hollegha, Arnulf Rainer, Hans Staudacher, and others. In addition, the path from figuration to the abstract language of forms is traced with a number of graphic works. Examples of sculptures from Fritz Wotruba’s master class, such as works by Otto Eder, Anton Marcolin, and Hanak’s student Othmar Jaindl, demonstrate the rise of sculpture to an internationally acclaimed avant-garde. This leads into the presentation of the Carinthian artists like Hans Bischoffshausen, Kiki Kogelnik and Maria Lassnig, who sought a confrontation with the international avant-garde after World War II and settled in Vienna, Paris, or New York. When Bruno Gironcoli from Carinthia took over the master class for sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, this marked the beginning of a new era, which was accompanied by the inclusion of new materials and an expansion and transformation of the concept of sculpture. This development is represented with individual positions from Carinthia. Painting from the 1980s and 90s is presented with works by Giselbert Hoke, Gustav Januš, Kurt Kappa Kocherscheidt, Peter Krawagna, Valentin Oman, Wolfgang Walkensteiner, Reimo Wukounig, and others. This is followed by a contemporary section, leading from the essential trends of the 90s up to the present. Artists such as Ernst Logar, Claus Prokop, Heiko Bressnik and Birgit Pleschberger exemplify the interweaving of sculpture and painting with photography, film, and installation. Textile materials are increasingly used in the area of sculpture as a means of expression in more recent object art, presented through works by artists such as Gudrun Kampl, Barbara Bernsteiner, and Edith Payer. The castle chapel forms the framework for the installation “The Last Support” by the artist Johannes Domenig.
KunstLandschaft. landscape art in Carinthia
Das MMKK zeigt Landschaftsbilder aus seiner umfangreichen Sammlung. Mit der Auswahl der Werke wird erstmals eine kleine Geschichte der Landschaftsmalerei in der Kärntner Kunst vorgestellt. Es ist die anhaltende Faszination an der Landschaft, die die Künstler über einen Zeitraum von mehr als 150 Jahren inspiriert hat und bis heute zu immer neuen Bildfindungen anregt. Der Bogen spannt sich vom 19. Jahrhundert bis in die Gegenwart, führt von den romantisierten, auch sakralisierten Landschaften eines Markus Pernhart über die Auflösung der Form bis hin zur vollständigen Abstraktion im 20. und 21. Jahrhundert. In den Werken von Herbert Boeckl, Arnold Clementschitsch, Jean Egger, Sebastian Isepp oder Anton Mahringer bis hin zu den jüngsten Beiträgen von Richard Klammer ist diese Entwicklung sehr schön zu erkennen. KünstlerInnen: Karl Bauer , Werner Berg, Hans Bischoffshausen, Herbert Boeckl, Arnold Clementschitsch, Jean Egger, Felix Esterl, Maximilian Florian, Franz Grabmayr, Sebastian Isepp, Gustav Januš, Richard Klammer, Maks Koželj, Peter Krawagna, Markus Krön, Anton Mahringer, Markus Orsini-Rosenberg, Eduard von Moro, Hermann Poschinger, Markus Pernhart , Arnulf Rainer, Ernst Riederer, Karl Stark, Erich Trost, Ernst Vollbehr, Maja Vukoje, Egon Wucherer, Ludwig Willroider, Willibald Zunk
The game of football, which dates back to the ancient world, points to a specific cultural tradition. Football has since become an international cultural asset; footballers such as David Beckham, Diego Maradona, Ronaldinho and of course Zinedine Zidane have risen to the status of superstars, idolised as artists in the field. The boundaries and taboos once evoked have vanished, and football has now assumed a place in the art of Post-Modernism. Under the title "MMKK International Match", the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art presents a series of high-ranking international, national and regional artists. In painting, installations, photos, films and staged productions, they reflect the phenomenon of football – witty, critical, ingenious, and of course playful. works by Stephan Balkenhol (GER), Stefan Banz (SUI), Werner Büttner (GER), Josef Dabernig (AUT), Stephen Dean (FRA), Manfred Erjautz (AUT), Werner Feiersinger (AUT), Thomas Grünfeld (GER), G.R.A.M. (AUT), Julie Henry (GBR), Gudrun Kampl (AUT), Cornelius Kolig (AUT), Markus Krön (AUT), Maria Lassnig (AUT), Olaf Nicolai (GER), Gabriel Orozco (MEX), Simon Patterson (GRB), Roman Signer (SUI)
Deliberately running contrary to the general focus on "new figurative" painting, the MMKK is compiling a historical thread of artistic abstraction in the 21st century. The exhibition will include 25 internationally distinguished artistic positions of the second and third post-1945 generations. The artists work at the boundary lines in the Modern Movement, exploring abstraction from new angles and without pathos. In abstract conception – in painting, sculpture and room installations – many of them have recourse to the visual repertoire of historical models, reflecting the ideas of the Classical Modern and its influence on the 20th and 21st centuries. Conventional attributions are made manifest, and the artist's position and artistic concept are critically questioned, together with conditions of reception and the production process itself. In particular, the position of the artist as author or creator is condensed and endowed with meaning far beyond the post-modern gesture of the quotation. All the works stand out by virtue of their unpretentious openness to abstract imagery. Intrinsic elements such as form, surface, colour, light, materiality and space function as symbols with implied significance and a challenge to come to grips with the content. Revealed here are contemporary cultural representational strategies which bring up to date the central themes of modern aesthetic discourse.
Hans Staudacher. A retrospective
On the occasion of the 85th birthday of Hans Staudacher, the MMKK is presenting a comprehensive exhibition of works. Staudacher, who enjoys a worldwide reputation, is regarded as the principal Austrian representative of the "lyric informel " style. A native of Villach, he moved to Vienna in 1950, where he still lives. During the period 1954-1962 he was frequent visitor to Paris, the centre of "art informel". Since the early 1950s, Staudacher has created abstract works with lyrical, gestural imagery; there emerges an open yet precise structuring which he consistently takes up and varies. The exhibition offers an overview of Staudacher's Oeuvre, including a considerable numer of works shown in public for the first time.
Frammenti dell'Arte Povera
In cooperation with the renowned private collector from Cologne, Reiner Speck, the Museum of Modern Art Carinthia presents for the first time Mario Merz (1925 – 2003) and Jannis Kounellis (born in 1936), two leading proponents of ‘Arte Povera’ (poor art). The presentation of this art movement, which was developed in Italy in the 60s, not only brings the art up to date and refreshes our memories, but, above all, also questions its validity.
Blickwechsel No. 3 aus der Sammlung, Kunstankäufe 05/06
In the exhibition blickwechsel No.3 the Museum of Modern Art Carinthia presents at regular intervals the newly purchased art works of the provincial collection. The focus is mainly on new art trends by young Carinthian artists which together provide an impressive and comprehensive overview of the regional art scene.
Donald Baechler, sculpture and painting; Blickwechsel No. 3 aus der Sammlung, Kunstankäufe 05/06
Donald Baechler, sculpture and painting For the first time in Europe the Museum of Modern Art Carinthia features a comprehensive exhibition by the renowned American artist Donald Baechler. In his work Baechler, born in 1956, concentrates on a few symbolic motifs which he selects from varying contexts and interprets in his unique way. The openness of his objects relates well to modern times and makes engaging with his art an interesting experience.
Giselbert Hoke - NADA
The Museum of Modern Art in Carinthia is presenting almost 100 paintings made by Giselbert Hoke in the exhibition NADA. Hoke, who was born in Bohemia and is nearly 80 years old, became famous overnight in 1956 for the frescoes he produced in the hall of the railway station in Klagenfurt - for which he became, initially, rejected. He has been living permanently in Carinthia since 1961. At the centre of the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in Carinthia, there are 22 recent large-format works on canvas which, with a few exceptions, have never been presented in public. They are, as Hoke himself says, "completely non-representational, abstract, and unnamed, the subject of which is the picture itself ..." They represent an unprecedented quality in the artist's work, and surprise those who know his work, while still carrying the artist's unmistakable trademark. Small-format paintings, partly - although merely coded - graphic paintings on paper, which were created in the last few years or earlier, complete them and illustrate Hoke's method of work. They originate from the subject areas of figure and landscape, and illustrate his path to abstraction. Curator of the exhibition and editor of the richly illustrated book which will be published on the occasion of the exhibition is Wieland Schmied.
facing 1200°, Glasskulpturen der Berengo Collection, Venezia
The tradition of Murano art glass and modernity: a dream made true by Adriano Berengo through the Berengo Collection, which celebrates its fifteenth anniversary this year. The collection i the result of the magical encounter of several artists from all over the world with glass. This age-old material, for its brighness, fluidity and transparency, perfectly suits contemporary art needs and utopian ideals. The artist's poetic intuition, combined with the Murano glass masters's know-how, is the alchemy which brings into being over 300 stunning sculptures which will be displayed for the first time ever at the Museum of Modern Art in Klagenfurt. artists: Henrik Allert, Elvira Bach, Luigi Benzoni, Ernst Billgren, Sergio Bovenga, Martin Bradley, Dusciana Bravura, Mark Brusse, Pino Castagna, James Coignard, Reinhoud D'Haese, Erik Dietmann, Paul Flora, Gerda Gruber, Adi Holzer, Ursula Huber, Marya Kazoun, Christoph Kiefhaber, Koji Kinutani, Kiki Kogelnik, Riccardo Licata, Bengt Lindström, Roberto Matta, Aldo Mondino, Irene Naef, Teruo Onuma, Irene Rezzonico, Juan Ripollés, Sandro Sergi, Shozo Shimamoto, Lolita Timofeeva, Imai Toshimitsu, Hannes Van Es, Jan Van Oost, Michel Van Overbeeke, Koen Vanmechelen, Claude Venard, Silvio Vigliaturo, Luciano Zarotti, Robert Zeppel-Sperl, Tatiana Zhurkov
BIS HEUTE - Zwei Jahrhunderte moderner Kunst in Kärnten
UP TO NOW - two hundred years of modern art in Carinthia
Maria Lassnig - body awareness painting
Maria Lassnig is considered to be one of the most important and signigicant contemporary artists of international renown. The exhibition, based on the holdings of the Essl Collection, comprises works from the mid-60s until 2003. The exhibition focuses on paintings, this selection is supplemented by the presentation of films and sculptures. In a significant collection between reality and fiction, Maria Lassnig produces striking and sensitive symbols which mark her artist position.
Johann Fruhmann - a retrospective
On the 20th anniversary of Johann Fruhmann's death the MMKK shows a retrospective on this Carinthian artist, who used to be quite reknowed in his lifetime, for the past few years wrongfully having fallen in oblivion though.
In der Ausstellung steht das Verhältnis von Farbe und Raum in den unterschiedlichen Gattungen und Medien im Zentrum. Die Künstler Thomas Baumann, Hans Jacoby, Flora Neuwirth, Peter Pommerer, Robert Schaberl und Esther Stocker thematisieren und reflektieren im Rahmen ihrer aktuellen Kunstproduktion die räumliche Dimension von Farbsetzungen im Raum. Die künstlerischen Beiträge zeichnen sich allesamt durch ihre Offenheit gegenüber konventionellen Praktiken aus. Gattungsgrenzen werden aufgehoben, implizite Bildhierarchien und traditionelle Praktiken der Sinnstiftung unterlaufen und in raumbezogene formale Strukturen übertragen, die eine andere Leseart eröffnen. In den installativen Inszenierungen werden unterschiedliche Facetten von räumlichen Farbsetzungen vorgestellt: der meditative Farbraum, die bildliche Simulation einer räumlichen Ansicht, der imaginäre Raum, die raumgreifende Papiercollage, der abstrakte Raum im konkreten Raum, der immaterielle Lichtraum und der begehbare Farbraum. Die Installationen erscheinen als dreidimensionale Wahrnehmungsräume, die aufgrund der räumlich evozierten Erfahrung den Betrachter unmittelbar in das Kunstwerk einbinden.
Herold, geb. 1947 in Jena, zählt zu den erfolgreichsten deutschen Künstlern der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte. In seinen Werken besticht er durch seine individuelle und originelle Kunstpraxis, in der er sich auch kritisch und humorvoll mit den Mechanismen des Kunstsystems auseinandersetzt. Die in enger Zusammenarbeit mit dem Künstler erarbeitete Werkschau bietet erstmalig einen Überblick über das Heroldsche Oeuvre, gezeigt werden mehr als 70 Arbeiten aus den letzten zwanzig Jahren. Zur Ausstellung erscheint ein umfangreicher, reich illustrierter Katalog, der einen umfassenden Überblick über das Gesamtkunstwerk gibt. Die Ausstellung ist eine Kooperation mit der Staatlichen Kunsthalle Baden-Baden und dem Kunstverein Hannover.
Interior View - Künstler erforschen die Sprache der Architektur
Elf internationale KünstlerInnen setzen sich mit Architektur auseinander und stellen ihre individuellen Referenzen zur Disposition. Die einzelnen Werke geben einen guten Einblick, wie Architektur subjektiv und künstlerisch wahrgenommen werden kann. Indem sich die KünstlerInnen die Formensprache der Architektur – d.h. Pläne, Modelle und Fotografien von Gebäuden – aus künstlerischer Perspektive aneignen, vereinnahmen sie formale Eigenschaften als auch Konzepte und übersetzen diese in aussagekräftige emotionale bzw. psychologische Metaphern. Einige haben sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die Erinnerung an bestimmte (selbst erlebte oder in der kollektiven Geschichte verankerte) Orte wachzurufen, andere stellen das Medium der Architektur mit seinem Vokabular und seinen Konventionen grundsätzlich in Frage. Interior View präsentiert eine Reihe von ausgewählten Arbeiten, die sich mit architektonischen Formen, der Wahrnehmung und Projektion in Form zweidimensionaler Flächen (Silke Schatz, Pascal Danz, Clare Goodwin, Catherine Yass) oder anhand der Plastizität der Skulptur (Thomas Schütte, Langlands & Bell, Toby Paterson, Monique Kwist) auseinander setzen und die Beziehung zwischen Gebäude und Mensch, zwischen räumlicher Struktur und Identität sichtbar werden lassen.
16.03.2005 - 29.05.2005:
change of view n°2
Parallel zur Ausstellung Interior View zeigt das MMKK in der zweiten Auflage der Reihe blickwechsel die Kunstankäufe 2004. Jedes Jahr werden neue Arbeiten für die Sammlung erworben. Der Ankauf erfolgt einerseits aus den Mitteln des Bundes, der sogenannten Galerienförderung, mit der Richtlinie zeitgenössische Kunst in österreichischen Galerien zu erwerben. Andererseits werden die Ankäufe über eine Ausschreibung des Landes Kärnten getätigt, wobei eine international besetzte Jury die Auswahl bestimmt. Künstlerliste Ute Aschbacher, Alexandra Brandl, Ines Doujak, Sissi Farassat, Werner Feiersinger, Peter Kogler, Robert Kummer, Maria Lassnig, Markus Orsini-Rosenberg, Hans Schabus, Nina Rike Springer, Bernhard Tragut, Maja Vukoje
blickwechsel aus der sammlung n°1
Die Ausstellung Blickwechsel. Aus der Sammlung n°1 ist der Auftakt einer Ausstellungsreihe, die zukünftig in immer unterschiedlichen Formaten die Werke aus der Sammlung des Landes Kärnten vorstellen wird. In der ersten Auflage steht das facettenreiche Spektrum der Sammlung im Vordergrund. Der Fokus liegt auf der Kunst der Nachkriegszeit, von den 60er Jahren bis heute. Bekannte Namen wie Bruno Gironcoli, Maria Lassnig, Hermann Nitsch und Arnulf Rainer treten in einen spannungsreichen Dialog mit jungen, aktuellen Positionen wie zum Beispiel Hans Schabus, Karin Sulimma und Tanja Widmann. Die unterschiedlichen Medien, Film- und Videoinstallationen neben traditionellen Bildtechniken wie Malerei und Grafik, stellen den Moment der Betrachtung ins Zentrum und laden Sie ein, immer wieder einen Blick zu riskieren und Neues zu entdecken.
„Eremiten-Kosmopoliten“ zeigt an vier Standorten einen Überblick und vertiefende Aspekte zur Entwicklung der modernen Malerei in Kärnten. MMKK – Museum Moderner Kunst Kärnten, Klagenfurt, Burggasse Von den Anfängen bis zum „Anschluss“ Stadtgalerie Klagenfurt, Theatergasse Vom Zweiten Weltkrieg bis zum Staatsvertrag Werner Berg-Galerie, Bleiburg Expressionismus und Melancholie: Werner Berg, Emil Nolde und die Neulandkünstler Museum des Nötscher Kreises, Nötsch im Gailtal Am Ursprung der Moderne: Kärntner Maler in Paris und am Mittelmeer Der Titel der Großausstellung bezieht sich auf die typischen Lebensverhältnisse moderner Künstler in diesem Land: Einerseits brachte das Sehnsuchtsbild einer erfolgreichen Karriere in den Weltmetropolen bedeutende Kärntner Maler wie Herbert Boeckl, Jean Egger, Maria Lassnig, Hans Staudacher oder Hans Bischoffshausen dazu, sich in Wien, Paris oder New York niederzulassen. Andererseits verführte die Verheißung einer authentischen künstlerischen Produktion in ursprünglichen Lebenswelten schon seit den Zeiten der bayerischen Brüder Willroider einige bedeutende, außerhalb Kärntens aufgewachsene Künstler wie Anton Kolig, Anton Mahringer und Werner Berg dazu, sich hier anzusiedeln. Neben diesen endgültigen Lebensentscheidungen gab es als drittes Modell typischer Kärntner Malerbiografien auch Künstler wie Franz Wiegele, Arnold Clementschitsch, Ludwig Heinrich Jungnickel, Erich Heckel, Stefan Pichler, Willibald Zunk, Reinhold Krassnig, Arnulf Rainer und Giselbert Hoke, die phasenweise oder zwischen ausgedehnten Reisen, durch kurze oder längere Lebensperioden, zur Kultivierung Kärntens als zweitem österreichischem Zentrum moderner Malerei neben Wien beitrugen. Dieses Kommen und Gehen, diese Migrationsdynamik wird auch im Corporate Design der Ausstellung durch Pfeilmotive ausgedrückt. Die Ausstellung wird von Dr. Agnes Husslein-Arco (Direktorin Museum der Moderne Salzburg) und Univ. Prof. Dr. Matthias Boeckl (Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien) kuratiert und zeigt mit über 400 Leihgaben aus zahlreichen nationalen sowie internationalen privaten und öffentlichen Sammlungen (siehe Liste) erstmals die Hauptwerke der modernen Malerei Kärntens in einem chronologisch und thematisch gegliederten Überblick.
17.02.2004 - 18.04.2004:
Sammlung Liaunig - 13 Kärntner Positionen nach 1945
The past decade has seen a tremendous increase in internet use and computer-mediated communication (Fox, Rainie, Larsen, Horrigan, Lenhart, Spooner, & Carter, 2001; Horrigan, 2001; Nie & Erbring, 2000; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002). As an increasing amount of communicative activity takes place through this new medium, there has likewise been a significant increase in primary research on virtual communities, online relationships, and a variety of other aspects of computer-mediated communication (Flaherty, Pearce, & Rubin, 1998; Matheson, 1991; Nonnecke, Preece, Andrews, & Voutour, 2004; Preece, 1999; Preece & Ghozati, 2001; Walther, 1996; Walther & Boyd, 2002; Wood & Smith, 2001; Wright, 2000a, 2002a, 2002b, 2004). Studies of online populations have led to an increase in the use of online surveys, presenting scholars with new challenges in terms of applying traditional survey research methods to the study of online behavior and Internet use (Andrews, Nonnecke, & Preece, 2003; Bachmann & Elfrink, 1996; Stanton, 1998; Witmer, Colman, & Katzman, 1999; Yun & Trumbo, 2000).
The technology for online survey research is young and evolving. Until recently, creating and conducting an online survey was a time-consuming task requiring familiarity with web authoring programs, HTML code, and scripting programs. Today, survey authoring software packages and online survey services make online survey research much easier and faster. Yet many researchers in different disciplines may be unaware of the advantages and disadvantages associated with conducting survey research online. Advantages include access to individuals in distant locations, the ability to reach difficult to contact participants, and the convenience of having automated data collection, which reduces researcher time and effort. Disadvantages of online survey research include uncertainty over the validity of the data and sampling issues, and concerns surrounding the design, implementation, and evaluation of an online survey.
This article considers and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages related to conducting online surveys identified in previous research. In addition, it reviews the current state of available web survey software packages and services, various features of these software packages and services, and their advantages and limitations. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of issues and resources in order to assist researchers in determining if they would benefit from using online surveys, and to guide them in the selection and use of online survey techniques. To facilitate these goals, which are both methodological and applied, the author draws on published research dealing with online survey methods, as well as his experience conducting more than 10 online surveys.
Advantages of Online Survey Research
Researchers in a variety of disciplines may find the Internet a fruitful area for conducting survey research. As the cost of computer hardware and software continues to decrease, and the popularity of the Internet increases, more segments of society are using the Internet for communication and information (Fox et al., 2001; Nie et al., 2002). Thousands of groups and organizations have moved online, many of them aggressively promoting their presence through the use of search engines, email lists, and banner advertisements. These organizations not only offer information to consumers, they also present opportunities for researchers to access a variety of populations who are affiliated with these groups.
Communication researchers may find the Internet an especially rich domain for conducting survey research. Virtual communities have flourished online, and hundreds of thousands of people regularly participate in discussions about almost every conceivable issue and interest (Horrigan, 2001; Wellman, 1997; Wellman & Haythornthwaite, 2002). Areas as diverse as interpersonal (Parks & Floyd, 1996; Tidwell & Walther, 2002; Wright, 2004), group (Hollingshead, McGrath, & O'Connor, 1993; Hobman, Bordia, Irmer, & Chang, 2002), organizational (Ahuja & Carley, 1998), health (Rice & Katz, 2001; Wright, 2000a), and mass communication (Flaherty et al.,1998; Flanagin & Metzger, 2001) have been studied using online surveys.
Access to Unique Populations
One advantage of online survey research is that it takes advantage of the ability of the Internet to provide access to groups and individuals who would be difficult, if not impossible, to reach through other channels (Garton, Haythornthwaite, & Wellman, 1999; Wellman, 1997). In many cases, communities and groups exist only in cyberspace. For example, it would be difficult to find a large, concentrated group of people conducting face-to-face discussions of topics such as cyber-stalking, online stock trading, and the pros and cons of virtual dating. While people certainly discuss such issues among friends, family members, and co-workers, few meet face-to-face in large groups to discuss them. One advantage of virtual communities as sites for research is that they offer a mechanism through which a researcher can gain access to people who share specific interests, attitudes, beliefs, and values regarding an issue, problem, or activity. For example, researchers can find a concentrated number of older individuals who use computers on the Internet-based community SeniorNet (Furlong, 1989; Wright, 2000a, 2000c). In contrast, with traditional survey research methods it may be more difficult to reach a large number of demographically-similar older people who are interested in computers.
Another example is the case of individuals with diseases or conditions, such as HIV, eating disorders, and physical disabilities. Individuals with these conditions and diseases are often difficult to reach because they are stigmatized offline. Health communication researchers have been able to go online to study these populations, including examining how features of the computer medium help people cope with the social stigma of their condition (Braithwaite, Waldron, & Finn, 1999; Wright, 2000b). More generally, the Internet enables communication among people who may be hesitant to meet face-to-face. For example, individuals with unpopular political views may hesitate to express themselves openly, and groups of individuals such as Arab-Americans may feel uncomfortable talking about anti-Arab sentiment in public places (Muhtaseb, 2004). These individuals and groups often can be reached on the Internet in larger numbers than would be possible using face-to-face research methods.
A second advantage is that Internet-based survey research may save time for researchers. As already noted, online surveys allow a researcher to reach thousands of people with common characteristics in a short amount of time, despite possibly being separated by great geographic distances (Bachmann & Elfrink, 1996; Garton et al., 2003; Taylor, 2000; Yun & Trumbo, 2000). A researcher interested in surveying hard-to-reach populations can quickly gain access to large numbers of such individuals by posting invitations to participate to newsgroups, chat rooms, and message board communities. In the face-to-face research environment, it would take considerably longer-if it were possible at all-to find an equivalent number of people with specific attributes, interests, and attitudes in one location.
Online surveys may also save time by allowing researchers to collect data while they work on other tasks (Llieva, Baron, & Healey, 2002). Once an invitation to participate in a survey is posted to the website of a community of interest, emailed to people through a listserv service, or distributed through an online survey research service, researchers may collect data while working on other projects (Andrews et al., 2003). Responses to online surveys can be transmitted to the researcher immediately via email, or posted to an HTML document or database file. This allows researchers to conduct preliminary analyses on collected data while waiting for the desired number of responses to accumulate (Llieva et al., 2002). First generation online survey researchers often used email-based surveys, which involved creating online survey forms using word processing software, and later used products such as Macromedia's Dreamweaver. Researchers had to “cut and paste” responses from the email responses into statistical software programs such as SAS and SPSS. More recently, online survey creation software packages provide a variety of templates to create and implement online surveys more easily, as well as to export data to statistical software packages. Moreover, a number of online survey services provide survey design assistance, generate samples, and analyze and interpret data. Some of the newer software packages and web-based services are detailed below.
Online survey researchers can also save money by moving to an electronic medium from a paper format (Bachmann & Elfrink, 1996; Couper, 2000; Llieva et al., 2002; Yun & Trumbo, 2000). Paper surveys tend to be costly, even when using a relatively small sample, and the costs of a traditional large-scale survey using mailed questionnaires can be enormous. The use of online surveys circumvents this problem by eliminating the need for paper and other costs, such as those incurred through postage, printing, and data entry (Llieva et al., 2002; Watt, 1999; Witmer et al., 1999). Similarly, conducting online interviews, either by email, or in a synchronous “chat” format, offers cost savings advantages. Costs for recording equipment, travel, and the telephone can be eliminated. In addition, transcription costs can be avoided since online responses are automatically documented. Newer online survey creation software and web survey services costs can vary from very little to thousands of dollars depending upon the types of features and services selected; however, this is relatively inexpensive compared to the cost of traditional paper-and-pencil surveys.
Disadvantages Associated with Online Survey Research
As discussed above, online surveys offer many advantages over traditional surveys. However, there are also disadvantages that should be considered by researchers contemplating using online survey methodology. Although many of the problems discussed in this section are also inherent in traditional survey research, some are unique to the computer medium.
When conducting online research, investigators can encounter problems as regards sampling (Andrews et al., 2003; Howard, Rainie, & Jones, 2001). For example, relatively little may be known about the characteristics of people in online communities, aside from some basic demographic variables, and even this information may be questionable (Dillman, 2000; Stanton, 1998). A number of recent web survey services provide access to certain populations by offering access to email lists generated from other online surveys conducted through the web survey service. Some offer access to specialized populations based on data from previous surveys. However, if the data were self-reported, there is no guarantee that participants from previous surveys provided accurate demographic or characteristics information.
Generating Samples from Virtual Groups and Organizations
Some virtual groups and organizations provide membership email lists that can help researchers establish a sampling frame. However, not all members of virtual groups and organizations allow their email addresses to be listed, and some may not allow administrators to provide their email addresses to researchers. This makes accurately sizing an online population difficult.
Once an email list is obtained, it is possible to email an online survey invitation and link to every member on the list. Theoretically, this can give researchers a sampling frame. However, problems such as multiple email addresses for the same person, multiple responses from participants, and invalid/inactive email addresses make random sampling online a problematic method in many circumstances (Andrews et al., 2003; Couper, 2000). One solution is for researchers to require participants to contact them to obtain a unique code number (and a place to include this code number on the online questionnaire) prior to completing a survey. However, requiring this extra step may significantly reduce the response rate. Another solution that some newer web survey programs offer is response tracking. Participants are required to submit their email address in order to complete the survey. Once they have completed the survey, the survey program remembers the participant's email address and does not allow anyone using that email address access to the survey. This feature helps to reduce multiple responses, although someone could potentially complete the survey a second time using a secondary email address (Konstan, Rosser, Ross, Stanton, & Edwards, 2005).
Generating a Sample from an Online Community
Establishing a sampling frame when researching an online community presents a number of challenges. Unlike membership-based organizations, many online communities, such as community bulletin boards and chat rooms, do not typically provide participant email addresses. Membership is based on common interests, not fees, and little information is required when registering to use these communities, if registration is required at all. Some researchers attempt to establish a sampling frame by counting the number of participants in an online community, or the published number of members, over a given period of time. In either case, the ebb and flow of communication in online communities can make it difficult to establish an accurate sampling frame. For example, participation in online communities may be sporadic depending on the nature of the group and the individuals involved in discussions. Some people are “regulars,” who may make daily contributions to discussions, while others only participate intermittently. Furthermore, “lurkers,” or individuals who read posts but do not send messages, may complete an online survey even though they are not visible to the rest of the community. The presence of lurkers in online communities appears to be highly variable (Preece, Nonnecke, & Andrews, 2004). Studies have found that in some online communities lurkers represent a high percentage (between 45% and 99%) of community members, while other studies have found few lurkers (Preece et al., 2004). Because lurkers do not make their presence known to the group, this makes it difficult to obtain an accurate sampling frame or an accurate estimate of the population characteristics.
As internet communities become more stable, some community administrators are beginning to compile statistics on their community's participants. Many communities require a person to register with the community in order to participate in discussions, and some communities are willing to provide researchers with statistics about community membership (at least in aggregate form). Registration typically involves asking for the individual's name, basic demographic information such as age and gender, and email address. Other community administrators might ask participants for information about interests, income level, education, etc. Some communities are willing to share participant information with researchers as a validation technique by comparing the survey sample characteristics with those of the online community in general. Yet, because individuals easily can lie about any information they report to community administrators, there is no guarantee of accuracy.
When possible, using both online and traditional paper surveys helps to assess whether individuals responding to the online version are responding in systematically different ways from those who completed the paper version. For example, Query and Wright (2003) used a combination of online and paper surveys to study older adults who were caregivers for loved ones with Alzheimer's disease. The researchers attempted to assess whether the online responses were skewed in any way by comparing the responses from both subsamples. While no significant differences between the two subsamples were found in this particular study, real differences in responses between Internet users and non-Internet users might exist in other populations. This may make it difficult to assess whether the observed differences are due to factors such as participant deception or actual differences due to characteristics associated with computer and non-computer users.
Other Sampling Concerns
Although some studies of online survey methods have found that response rates in email surveys are equal to or better than those for traditional mailed surveys (Mehta & Sivadas, 1995; Stanton, 1998; Thompson, Surface, Martin, Sanders, 2003), these findings may be questionable because non-response rate tracking is difficult to ascertain in most large online communities (Andrews et al., 2003). One relatively inexpensive technique used by market researchers to increase response rates is to offer some type of financial incentive, e.g., a lottery. Individuals who participate in the survey are given a chance to win a prize or gift certificate, and the winner is selected randomly from the pool of respondents. However, this technique is not without problems. Internet users frequently encounter bogus lotteries and other “get rich quick” schemes online, so a lottery approach to increasing response rates could potentially undermine the credibility of the survey. In addition, offering a financial incentive may increase multiple responses to the survey as participants try to “stack the deck” to increase their chances of winning (Konstan, et al., 2005). Straight incentives such as a coupon redeemable for real merchandise, i.e., books, may be more effective and more credible.
Self-selection bias is another major limitation of online survey research (Stanton, 1998; Thompson et al., 2003; Wittmer et al., 1999). In any given Internet community, there are undoubtedly some individuals who are more likely than others to complete an online survey. Many Internet communities pay for community operations with advertising. This can desensitize participants to worthwhile survey requests posted on the website. In short, there is a tendency of some individuals to respond to an invitation to participate in an online survey, while others ignore it, leading to a systematic bias.
These sampling issues inhibit researchers' ability to make generalizations about study findings. This, in turn, limits their ability to estimate population parameters, which presents the greatest threat to conducting probability research. For researchers interested only in conducting nonprobability research, these issues are somewhat less of a concern. Researchers who use nonprobability samples assume that they will not be able to estimate population parameters.
Many of the problems discussed here are not unique to online survey research. Mailed surveys suffer from the same basic limitations. While a researcher may have a person's mailing address, he or she does not know for certain whether the recipient of the mailed survey is the person who actually completes and returns it (Schmidt, 1997). Moreover, respondents to mailed surveys can misrepresent their age, gender, level of education, and a host of other variables as easily as a person can in an online survey. Even when the precise characteristics of a sample are known by the researcher, people can still respond in socially desirable ways or misrepresent their identity or their true feelings about the content of the survey.
The best defense against deception that researchers may have is replication. Only by conducting multiple online surveys with the same or similar types of Internet communities can researchers gain a reliable picture of the characteristics of online survey participants.
Some researchers access potential participants by posting invitations to participate in a survey on community bulletin boards, discussion groups, and chat rooms. However, members of online communities often find this behavior rude or offensive (Hudson & Bruckman, 2004), or consider this type of posting to be “spam” (Andrews et al., 2003). A community moderator may delete the unwanted post, or the researcher may be inundated with emails from irate members of the community. Researchers using email invitations to participate in a survey may face similar rejection. An unwanted email advertisement is often considered an invasion of privacy. The invitation for the survey may be deleted, or the researcher may receive email from participants complaining about it.
Some participants in Internet communities actually welcome studies by researchers, especially when members are interested in how their community is perceived by others. With some diplomatic dialogue initiated by the researcher, it is often possible to work with web community administrators and participants when proposing a study idea (Reid, 1996). This is a more ethnographic approach. Although accessing some online communities can be extremely challenging, seeking permission from the community and taking time to explain the purpose of the study might help a researcher to gain access. Nonetheless, it may take a long time before receiving a response to a request, and community sponsors may reject the researcher's request despite his or her attempts to convey the possible benefits of the study for the community (Andrews et al., 2003). Researchers might apologize in advance for the potentially unwanted posting, with an explanation of the importance of conducting the research and possible benefits to members.
Researchers can foster “good will” between themselves and community participants by offering to provide information about the results of their study to the community. One way to do this is to create a study report, highlighting the most interesting results to the online community audience, post it on a web page, and have community administrators post a link to the page on the community web site. Study results should be presented so that audience members can understand them. For example, the author of this article created a summary of research findings for the SeniorNet community after completing a study of social support among participants (Wright, 2000a). SeniorNet administrators created a special link to this web page so that the participants in the study (as well as other SeniorNet members) could learn about the results and their possible implications.
It is important for researchers to include contact information, information about the study, and something about their credentials when creating an invitation to participate in a survey. In addition to being a requirement of most institutional research review boards in universities in the United States, this helps to enhance the credibility of the survey and it can create opportunities for email interaction between the researcher and participants. This is valuable, especially when participants have questions. However, as Andrews et al. (2003) point out, providing researcher contact information has its downside. Researchers can sometimes become the targets of abusive individuals who resent the invasion of privacy when they encounter an online survey. Hate email or worse types of abuse can occur if some individuals on the Internet find online surveys offensive. A man once called the author's home phone number repeatedly and left threatening messages on his voice mail after obtaining the number from his department secretary (the department number appeared on the informed consent for the online survey). While such incidents tend to be rare, the possibility of irate responses is something to consider.
The above does not necessarily constitute an exhaustive review of the advantages and disadvantages of conducting online surveys, although it represents experiences encountered by many researchers, and points to factors that should be taken into consideration in deciding to use and designing an online survey. The next section surveys current web survey software packages and online survey-related services available to researchers who may be interested in conducting online survey research.
Current Web Survey Software Packages and Online Survey-Related Services
As noted above, today's researchers have help with online survey work. There are currently dozens of online survey software packages and web survey services available to researchers willing to pay for them. Table 1 lists 20 of the more prominent packages and services, along with their web addresses.
The author examined each of the websites for these 20 online survey product and service companies in order to assess current features, pricing, and limitations, as well as to identify current trends in the online survey product and services market. Table 2 presents a comparison of features, pricing issues, and limitations of the 20 online product and service companies.
|Company Name/Product||Features||Pricing||Service Limitations|
|Active Websurvey||Unlimited surveys; software automatically generates HTML codes for survey forms||Information unavailable on website||Customer required to purchase software; limited to 9 question formats|
|Apian Software||Full service web design and hosting available||$1195 up to $5995 depending on number of software users; customer charged for technical support||Customer required to purchase software|
|Create Survey||Standard features; educational discount||$99 a month for unlimited surveys and responses; free email support||Survey housed on company server for a set amount of time|
|EZSurvey||Unlimited surveys; mobile survey technology available; educational discount||$399 for basic software; additional software is extra; telephone training is $150 an hour||Customer required to purchase software|
|FormSite||Weekly survey traffic report; multiple language support||$9.95 up to $99.95 per month depending on desired number of response||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time; limited number of response per month|
|HostedSurvey||Standard features; educational discount||Charge is per number of responses; first 250 response are free, then around $20 every 50 responses.||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time|
|InfoPoll||Standard features; Software can be downloaded for free||Information unavailable on website; limited customer support; training available for a fee||Software can be downloaded free, but works best on InfoPoll server; customers appear to be charged for using InfoPoll server|
|InstantSurvey||Standard features; supports multimedia||Information unavailable on website; free 30 day trial||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time|
|KeySurvey||Online focus group feature; unlimited surveys||$670 per year for a basic subscription; free 30 day trial||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time; limited to 2000 responses|
|Perseus||Educational discount; mobile survey technology available||Information unavailable on website; free 30 day trial||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time|
|PollPro||Standard features; unlimited surveys||$249 for single user; access to PollPro server is an additional fee||Customer required to purchase software|
|Quask||Supports multimedia||$199 for basic software; access to Quask server for an additional fee||Customer required to purchase software; more advanced features only come with higher priced software|
|Ridgecrest||Standard features; educational discount||$54.95 for 30 days||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time; limited to 1000 responses for basic package|
|SumQuest||Standard features; user guidebook for creating questionnaire available||$495 to purchase software; free unlimited telephone support||Customer required to purchase software|
|SuperSurvey||Standard features||$149 per week for basic package.||Survey housed on company server for only a set amount of time; 2000 response per week limit|
|SurveyCrafter||Standard features; educational discount||$495 for basic software package; free and unlimited technical support||Customer required to purchase software|
|SurveyMonkey||Standard features; unlimited surveys||$20 a month for a basic subscription; free email support||Survey housed on company server for a set amount of time; limited to 1000 initial responses|
|SurveySite||Company helps with all aspects of survey design, data collection and analysis; online focus group feature||Information unavailable on website||Company staff rather than customer create and conduct survey|
|WebSurveyor||Standard features; unlimited surveys||$1,495 per year for software license||Customer required to purchase software|
|Zoomerang||Standard features; educational discount||$599 for software||Customer required to purchase software|
This is not, of course, an exhaustive list of online survey software and service businesses. However, it represents a good cross-section of the types of online survey products and services currently available to researchers. The following sections consider some of the current features of online survey products and services, pricing issues, limitations, and the implications of using these products and services for online survey research.
Survey Creation Software vs. Expanded Services
The businesses listed in Tables 1 and 2 offer researchers two basic options for creating and conducting online survey research. One option is the online survey software packages, which are computer programs that researchers use to create and conduct online surveys on their own computer and server. The companies that offer such packages also provide options for customer support, server space for the online survey (in some cases), and several data tracking and analysis options. Other companies offer a wider range of services for conducting online surveys, including research design, online questionnaire development, sampling and data collection services, and data analysis and interpretation services. The major features and problems with each option are discussed below.
Purchasing Software Option
Some companies (see Table 2) require customers to purchase online survey creation software. Owning the software enables researchers to create multiple online surveys of any length as opposed to being charged per survey, per time period (e.g., by the month), by number of responses, by survey length, or by some combination of these options. Many of these companies also offer customer support, including help with design, data collection, participant tracking, and data analysis. One disadvantage of owning the software is that customers have to pay to upgrade software. Given rapid advances in software development, this software may be outdated in a relatively short period of time. Customers who have purchased software receive discounted upgrades, however. An example of this option is EZ Survey, which allows researchers to run the software on their own computer and a server of their choice. This may be an attractive choice for researchers who have access to free server space on their university or research organization server.
Online Questionnaire Features
The businesses listed in Tables 1 and 2 offer a wide array of options for creating online surveys, including many different templates to help first-time web survey researchers. Each of the online survey products reviewed offered some type of online form to collect data from participants. A “form” is an interactive type of web page that allows Internet users to send information across computer networks. After completing an online survey, participants click on a “submit” button on the webpage. This transmits the survey responses to the researcher. Online survey questions are the same types as on a traditional paper/pencil questionnaire, only the participants submit the information over the Internet rather than return questionnaires in person or by mail. Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripting, a type of computer language that is run on the Web server where an online survey is housed, tells the server how to process information that is submitted.
Most Internet users are quite familiar with Web forms since search engines, including Yahoo! and Google, are sophisticated forms. Writing scripts for processing forms can be done manually, but this type of work can be cumbersome for a busy researcher, especially one who is not technologically proficient. All of the reviewed companies offering online survey products provide a variety of useful questionnaire options, and a user-friendly process to develop online questionnaires.
The businesses listed in Tables 1 and 2 typically offered a range of question types, although the number of options varied from business to business. Basic question options usually include Likert-type scales, semantic differential scales, checklists, textboxes (for qualitative responses), drop-down menus (for nominal or categorical items), and filter questions (to tailor surveys to individual characteristics of survey respondents). In addition, the majority of the reviewed products offer randomized answer choices for participants, so as to vary the order of question responses and thus reduce question order bias.
Some products support multiple language versions of an online survey and versions for visually impaired respondents. Additionally, some products offer more complex question-type options, such as multiple response matrices and the ability to use multimedia, i.e., asking participants to respond to a video or audio clip. A multimedia video or audio clip can be used to jog the memories of respondents or as a reference point for participant responses. For example, researchers who want to measure participant perceptions of a political candidate's positions on foreign policy could include a video clip from a recent speech. Multimedia can also be useful when targeting low literacy populations, since video and audio messages guide participants through an online survey. However, including multimedia can increase download times and may be frustrating to participants who must download media players or other types of programs in order to participate in the survey (Andrews et al., 2003). Taking the use of multimedia a bit further, the technology exists to easily construct a web page that uses video and/or audio clips as stimuli for online experimental and quasi-experimental designs. It is also possible to develop computer scripts that randomly send participants to one of several other web pages. Each web page could contain a different audio and video stimulus, enabling the random assignment of participants to different levels of an independent variable. All respondents (regardless of which condition they were assigned to) could then be linked to an online questionnaire containing dependent variable measures. Researchers who are interested in more sophisticated designs such as these would probably benefit from selecting a business that offers a greater degree of consulting and technical support.
Data Collection and Analysis Features
In addition to helping researchers create online surveys, most of the reviewed businesses offer features that aid the data collection and analysis processes, as well as customer support. These range from basic features to more in-depth involvement by company consultants. Basic survey process features include tracking of survey respondent email, email response notification, real time tracking of item responses, and the ability to export survey responses to statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. In addition, most of the reviewed companies offer a required answer feature, which prevents survey data submission unless certain items are responded to. This reduces missing data, especially for key survey measures. Most online survey companies offer a redirect feature to display a “thank you for participating” web page, or any web page a researcher chooses, after a participant submits the data to the researcher. Other basic features include the ability to share data with other researchers, enabling research teams with members at different locations to share survey results.
Although most of the reviewed companies offer free technical support, researchers are generally charged a fee for extensive consultations and/or training. For example, SurveySite offers consultation throughout the entire survey research process, including method design, questionnaire creation, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation of results. Zoomerang offers access to tailored email lists and multisource recruiting for sampling, allowing researchers to target specific demographic groups within a population of interest. Other companies will help researchers collect data by advertising the survey on certain websites. Some companies offer other types of features to aid with the survey research process. For example, EZ Survey offers a free sample size calculator, and businesses such as SurveyMonkey offer pop-up advertising to aid in recruiting participants. Some companies, such as InstantSurvey, unsubscribe respondents from an email list after they have completed a survey, which may help to reduce multiple responses from the same participant.
Several of the companies offer researchers even more sophisticated options for conducting survey research. Perseus can conduct mobile surveys, using wireless handheld devices like Palm pilots. Data are sent through wireless technology to a server (similar to other online survey forms) where the information is posted to a database file. Mobile Internet surveys offer a number of advantages to researchers. Using a wireless device (as opposed to a laptop computer), researchers can bring a survey to otherwise inaccessible populations in the non-virtual world, such as patients in a busy healthcare setting, individuals in rural settings, or socioeconomic groups that do not have access to computers or the Internet. This allows researchers to conduct face-to-face interviews with participants while using the wireless device to store and transmit responses to the survey to a database. In addition, some companies, such as Perseus, have the capability to merge computer technology with traditional survey methods. They offer telephone survey capabilities where participants use a touch tone phone to enter responses.
Other companies, such as KeySurvey and SurveySite, provide the ability to conduct online focus groups. The Internet allows researchers to include participants from multiple geographic locations in the same focus group. Participants view the same video, audio, and/or text in real time from remote locations. Researchers can interact with participants via chat room applications or webcam and audio teleconferencing technologies. Real-time computer applications are important in focus groups because researchers want participants to interact with the focus group facilitator and with each other at the same time. The responses of one participant can trigger ideas and responses among other participants, leading to richer results. These qualitative focus groups are often used as a precursor to developing a quantitative survey to reach broader numbers of individuals.
Costs of survey products and their services vary. In general, the more features and services needed from a web survey company, the more it will cost. However, it is a “buyer beware” situation. Basic features can be purchased for a relatively small amount of money. For instance, SurveyMonkey provides authoring tools, server space, and simple automated survey analysis for about $20 a month ($240 per year); however, there are limitations, such as the limitation of 1000 responses per month. SurveyMonkey charges an additional 5 cents per survey response over the 1000 response limit. Moreover, paying more does not necessarily mean more services. Other businesses, such as KeySurvey, charge substantially more ($670 per year for a basic subscription) for products and services similar to those offered by SurveyMonkey. Other companies charge researchers by the survey. Companies that charge less typically do not recruit participants for customers and do not provide consultation throughout all stages of the research process. However, for many web survey researchers, these basic, less expensive approaches may be sufficient, especially for those experienced in conceptualizing survey projects, data analysis, and interpretation of results. In general, if sample generation or help with analyzing data is not needed, then businesses that include these services in the price should be avoided, or else these services should be negotiated out of the price. Pricing for the businesses reviewed here varied considerably even though they offered similar products, features, and services. For example, SuperSurvey offers products, features, and services similar to SurveyMonkey for $500 to $2000 per business quarter (depending upon number of users and number of responses desired), as opposed to only $20 a month.
As previously stated, while most companies offer free technical support, researchers are generally charged extra for extended training and consultation. In some cases, consultation can be expensive. For example, Perseus charges $2000 per day for personalized training, but also offers discounts for group consultation and training. Moreover, many of the reviewed business websites offer educational discounts for academics, including discounts on software, as well as consultations and other support services. For example, Zoomerang offers educators one year access to their online web survey creation services, server space for surveys, and customer support for around $350 (about $100 less than the regular price for service). Other business, such as Perseus and SurveyCrafter, advertise educational discounts on a wider variety of services. Researchers should inquire about these special discounts since they may help to reduce the overall cost of purchasing web survey software or services.
As noted above, there may be limitations associated with using web survey products and services. Some specific limitations include issues of time, space, and number of responses allowed for a given price. For example, companies such as SurveyMonkey and SuperSurvey will host an online survey for a set amount of time. If a researcher wants to keep a survey on the company's server for an extended period of time (such as more than a year), this costs extra. In addition, some companies often charge more for longer surveys and for a number of respondents exceeding a certain amount (generally over 1000). Purchased software, in contrast, generally does not have space or response number restrictions.
There are also generally limitations to the amount of free customer support a researcher can obtain. Customer support may be available for minor technical problems and customer questions, but customers are generally charged extra for extended consultations and training. Typically, minor questions can be answered for free via telephone, email, or chat applications, but a researcher may be charged for extensive training, such as learning advanced web page creation techniques or data analysis instruction. Researchers who use a company's email lists to generate a sample are limited by the quality of this type of sampling frame. In cases where a company uses the same lists again and again for different clients, the individuals who receive the advertisements about a survey on these lists may become weary of being targeted by multiple surveys, and this could negatively impact response rates.
Implications of Using Web Survey Products and Services
Current web survey products and services have greatly facilitated the process of creating and conducting online surveys. Researchers can save considerable time by utilizing the products and services that are offered by many of the businesses highlighted in this article, compared to the time that it would take most researchers to create an online survey themselves using a web authoring program, thanks to a variety of attractive features offered. The cost of these products and services varies depending on the types of features and services a researcher desires. As with purchasing any product or service, researchers should assess their research needs, budget, and research time frame, and comparison shop when deciding on which business to use.
As we have seen, however, these products and services are not without limitations. While attractive, features of the surveys themselves (such as multimedia) and the services (e.g., using company email lists to generate samples) offered by web survey business can affect the quality of data in a variety of ways. Furthermore, using these products and services does not necessarily circumvent the disadvantages of online surveys, including issues related to sampling frames, response rates, participant deception, and access to populations. In short, researchers should view current web survey products and services as another research tool that-like the online survey itself-has its own unique advantages and disadvantages.
The author would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful and insightful suggestions for improving this manuscript.