Fitness Testing For Sport And Exercise Assignment Of Contract

Transcript of Assignment 2 Health Screening

Fitness Testing
Health Screening
Health Screening Procedures
Health Screening Questionnaires
Informed Consent Form
Informed consent acts as documented evidence that shows you have provided the individual with all the necessary information to undertake the tests.

The individual being tested will need to complete an informed consent to confirm that they:

Can follow the test method.
Know exactly what is required of them during the tests.
Have fully consented to their participant in the fitness tests.
Know that they can ask you any questions relating to the tests.
Understand that they can withdrawal their consent at any time.

The consent form should be signed and dated by:
The individual to be tested (the participant).
Their parents/guardian (if under 18).
You (the tester).
A witness (usually your tutor/assessor).

Unit 7 Assignment 2
Assignment Title
: Health Screening
This assignment will assume that you are a newly qualified fitness instructor. You will be required to implement health screening and health monitoring tests for two contrasting individuals. In addition you will also have to evaluate the health monitoring results to provide recommendations
Pass Criteria
Prepare an appropriate health
screening questionnaire
Merit Criteria
describe the strengths and
areas for improvement for
two contrasting individuals
using information from health
screening questionnaires and
health monitoring tests

Distinction Criteria
: evaluate the health screening
questionnaires and health
monitoring test results and
provide recommendations
for lifestyle improvement

Devise and use appropriate health screening procedures for two contrasting individuals
: Safely administer and interpret the results of four different health monitoring tests for two contrasting individuals.
The aim of a health screening questionnaire is to

medical conditions
which would
a person from
or being tested safely.

Health screening must take place before any kind of exercise or testing can take place.

Health screening questionnaires collect information regarding an individual's current physical activity levels, dietary habits and lifestyle.

They include questions on:

• Demographic information (name, age, address, DOB, contact telephone number, emergency contact)
• Medical condition
• Operations
• Illness
• Medication
• Family history - CHD, Diabetes, Stoke etc.
• Lifestyle - Diet, alcohol consumption, levels of physical activity, smoking habits

Task 1: Prepare an appropriate health screening questionnaire (use examples given for previous assignment)
Health Screening Questionnaires
Who is responsible for health screening?
Any establishment who offers exercise facilities and programs are legally obligated to use health screening.
Local authority-owned leisure centers (Aurora, Queens Leisure Complex)
Health club (Virgin Active, Pure Gym, DW Sports)

Why is it important to do health screening?
It detects illnesses, diseases or injuries = RISK FACTORS.
Gym exercises might not be appropriate for an individual.
It also gives baseline data so you can monitor any changes
Conditions that would benefit from regular exercise
Hypertension (raised blood pressure)

Client Consultation
You are required to complete a consultation whereby you take the role of a fitness instructor and your partner (the client) will complete a PARQ and informed consent form.

During the consultation you will need to be professional at all times and ensure the client feels at ease - develop a rapport, keep them fully informed and show discretion.

Be aware of your body language and the non-verbal message you are giving out.

Ensure you clearly communicate findings from the consultation and the implications of these. e.g. answering yes to any question on the PARQ will result in a medical referral.
Client Confidentiality
During the health screening process you will be dealing with medical and health records which hold sensitive information.
Medical and health records are confidential documents which must be treated with the utmost care. It is your responsibility to maintain client confidentiality by ensuring that:

Such records are used and viewed by only yourself as the fitness instructor, and your supervisor/assessor.
Your records are kept securely - they must not, at any time, be left in a public place and electronic records should be password protected.
The contents of the health screening and fitness assessment are not discussed in public with anyone else.
Medical Referrals
Results from the health screening questionnaire / PAR-Q can be used to identify risk factors and individuals requiring referrals to their GP.
Factors for medical referral include:
Heart conditions
Chest pain
High blood pressure
Bone/joint problems

Fitness tests will need to be modified to take the medical condition of the individual into consideration:
Surgery in last 12 months.
Pregnancy of having recently given birth (last 6 months).
Any chronic illness or condition such as epilepsy, arthritis, osteoporosis.
Any other physical reason not mentioned here why you should not follow an exercise programme.

Health Monitoring Tests
Health Monitoring Tests
The health monitoring tests you will be required to conduct include:

Heart rate
Blood Pressure
Lung Function
Waist-to-hip ratio
Body Mass Index (BMI)

NB: All test results must be recorded!
Heart Rate (HR)
This can be measured manually via the radial artery in the wrist or via a digital blood pressure monitor. Heart rate is measured in beats per minute (BPM)
The average resting heart rate for a
is 68bpm
The average resting heart rate for a
is 72bpm
Males generally have larger hearts compared to females therefore they can pump more oxygenated blood around the body, thus the average resting heart rate is lower.
- High resting heart rate >100bpm
- Low resting heart rate <60bpm

Heart Rate (HR)
Manual Method
Radial Pulse (wrist)
- Place your index and middle fingers together on the opposite wrist, about 1/2 inch on the inside of the joint, in line with the index finger. Once you find a pulse, count the number of beats you feel within a one minute period.

Carotid Pulse (neck)
- Place your first two fingers on either side of the neck. Be careful not too press to hard, then count the number of beats for a minute.

You can estimate the per minute rate by counting 15 seconds and multiply by 4 or alternatively use a heart rate monitor / heart rate app.

Blood Pressure
Blood pressure can be measured using a digital blood pressure monitor, which provides a reading of pressure as: systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure mmHg (millimetres of mercury)
Systolic blood pressure:
The highest pressure within the bloodstream, which occurs during each beat when the heat is in systole.

Diastolic blood pressure:
the lowest pressure in the bloodstream, which occurs between the beats when the heart is in diastole.
Blood Pressure
It is recommended a digital sphygmomanometer is used to take the clients blood pressure rather than a manual sphygmomanometer

The client should be in a resting state, normally seated, for five minutes before measurement.
The client should avoid intake of nicotine and caffeine for 30 minutes before measurement.
The arm should be relaxed and at heart level.
Place the rubber cuff around the upper arm so it covers the brachial artery
Turn the digital sphygmomanometer on and start the test.
The cuff will begin to inflate approx 170mmHg
The cuff will gradually deflate as the pressure is released.
The digital sphygmomanometer will display the systolic blood pressure over the diastolic blood pressure.
Repeat twice twice within a three-minute period and record a mean average reading

Lung Function
Waist-to-hip Ratio
This ratio can determine levels of obesity and those at risk of heart disease.
Place a tape measure firmly around the clients waist circumference ((narrowest part of the torso for females, in line with belly button for males).
Record measurement in centimetres.
Place a tape measure around at the maximum circumference of the buttocks.
Record measurement in centimetres.
Divide the waist measurement (cm) by the hip measurement (cm) to obtain the wait-to-hip ratio.

Ensure the tape measure is level when taking readings.
Body Mass Index
BMI is a measurement of body composition in kg/m2 and is used to determine to what degree someone is overweight.
BMI is only an estimate, as the test does not take into account the individuals frame size or muscle mass.

Research shows a significant relationship between high BMI and increased cardiovascular disease and high BMI with diabetes.
: weight (kg) / height (m2)
Lifestyle factors
Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors
The five major coronary risk factors are:
High blood pressure (hypertension), where on at least two separate occasions:
Systolic blood pressure is higher than 160mmHg
Diastolic blood pressure is higher than 100mmHg
Cholesterol is higher than 6.20mmol/l
Cigarette smoking
Diabetes mellitus
A family history of coronary heart disease in parents of siblings prior to the age of 55.

The tester should assess the client’s lung function during the health screening process. Assessing lung function may identify conditions such as:
• Asthma: lung disease that reduces the amount of air inhaled
• Dyspnea: shortness of breath or laboured breathing, possibly due to various types of lung or heart

The normal measurement used when assessing lung function is known as peak flow. This is a measurement of how much a person can exhale. Peak flow is measured by using a simple device known as a peak flow meter.

Ensure the meter is set to zero or base level.
Ask the client to stand, unless disabled.
Ask the client to take a deep breath.
Place the meter in the client’s mouth, ensuring the lips are placed around the mouthpiece.
Instruct the client to blow out as hard as possible, which normally takes one to two seconds.
Repeat this process so you have three readings. Take the highest value.
Make sure you record the score on the evaluation sheet for the client.
Peak flow depends on age, height and gender.
Balanced Diet
Balanced diet:
A diet that provides the correct amounts of nutrients without excess or deficiency.
A simple guide to healthy eating:

Eat the correct amount of maintain a healthy body weight
Cut back on fat intake particularly fat from saturated sources
Eat plenty of foods with a high starch and fibre content
Don't eat sugary foods too often
Use salt sparingly and reduce your reliance on convenience foods
Ensure adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals by eating a wide variety of foods
Alcohol consumption should be within the government recommendations (females 3 units a day, males 4 units a day. You should have at least 2 alcohol free days per week)

Physical Activity
Recommendations for young people 5-18
At least 1 hour of physical activity every day, which should range between moderate-intensity activity and vigorous-intensity activity.
Three days a week, these activities should involve muscle-strengthening activities.
Recommendations for young people 19-64
2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week.
2 or more days a week work on muscle strengthening activities.
Benefits of regular physical Activity

Control your weight
Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease
Reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes
Reduce your risk of some cancers
Strengthen your bones and muscles
Improve your mental health and mood
Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult
Increase your chances of living longer
Alcohol consumption and Smoking
The NHS recommends:
Men should not regularly drink more than 3-4 units of alcohol a day
Women should not regularly drink more than 2-3 units a day
If you've had a heavy drinking session, avoid alcohol for 48 hours
Alcopops 1.5 units
Pint of larger/cider/beer
3 units
Rum, vodka, whisky, tequila, sambuca (35ml) single measures of spirits are 1.4 units.
Health affects associated with smoking and drinking

Emphysema - breathing becomes labored
Lung cancer
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Cirrhosis of the Liver

Full transcript

Unit One Introduction

In today’s society, we can easily fall into the trap of 

developing a sedentary lifestyle; we usethe car rather than walk to the local shops, we take the lift rather than the stairs, and our

hectic lifestyle doesn’t seem to allow us the time to engage in regular physical activity.

Establishing and maintaining a

desirable level of fitness is more important than ever; it’s

paramount to the future health of the nation.The overall relationship between fitness and health affects performance in our everydaylives, whether it be sport- or work-related. Fitness is vital to achieving success in sport, andfitness testing plays a valuable role in the development of personal fitness levels. Sportsperformers regularly participate in fitness tests to determine their baseline measures.Fitness testing results are then used to identify strengths and areas for improvement.Fitness testing results are also used to predict future performance and provide feedback onthe effectiveness of a training programme.Fitness testing can be carried out in a health club setting. Health clubs screen clients forcontraindications to exercise, and fitness testing enables the instructor to determinebaseline measures, using the results as a basis for exercise programme design.This unit is particularly relevant for those who aspire to work in sports coaching, fitnessinstruction and elite sport.The first part of the unit looks at a range of laboratory and field-based fitness tests. Learnerswill explore the different tests available and the benefits and drawbacks of laboratory andfield-based fitness test. Learners will also be introduced to the practice of health screeningand how to carry out health monitoring tests.The second part of the unit will develop the skills and knowledge to be able to follow fitnesstest protocol, taking into account validity and reliability. Learners will develop skills to beable to administer fitness tests in a safe and effective manner, interpreting results againstrecommended values, providing feedback to an individual regarding how fitness levels canbe improved.The content of this unit is divided into four areas of learning focused around:

a range of laboratory-based and field-based fitness tests L01

health screening techniques L02

administration of appropriate fitness tests L03

interpreting the results of fitness tests and providing feedback L04

Learning Outcomes

In order to meet the assessment criteria you will be set a variety of assessment tasks thatwill require you to variously:i)

devise, select, administer,ii)

describe, justify, compareiii)

evaluate and analyse

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