The Mongols were a nomadic group from Central Asia who joined together under the rule of Ghengis Khan to conquer territory. The Mongols had an enormous affect on the territories it conquered. They generally took on the culture of the peoples they conquered. In China, the Mongols modeled the government similar to China’s but did not allow Chinese members to become a part of the government. They also outlawed the civil service exam. In contrast in the Middle East, Il-Khan allowed local government officials to stay in power and keep their rule as long as they continued to pay taxes. However in both regions the Mongol’s encouraged trade and eliminated tariffs through their empire. In that way they boosted their economies.
Politically the Mongols changed the system significantly in China. Although Kublei Khan, the ruler of China during the Mongol ruler tried to model the government after the Chinese bureaucracy as exemplified by his naming the dynasty, the Yuan dynasty and keeping a strong centralized government with regular tax payment. He also outlawed the civil service exam because the Mongols were not well educated. In Addition he only allowed Mongols to be a part of the government. In contrast, in the Middle East Il-Khan kept the government very similar to how it had always been. The leaders of the mongols converted to Islam unlike the Mongols in China who didn’t take on Confucianism, the Chinese tradition. The Mongols in the Middle East also allowed the current leader to remain intact as long as they continued to pay the taxes.
Economically, the mongols were very similar in China and the Middle East. In China the Mongols encouraged trade. They protected the Silk Roads from invaders. An example of how the Mongol’s encouraged and welcomed trade is with Marco Polo, a merchant who traveled all around Eurasia and wrote about his journey and travels to the Yuan dynasty. Similarly in the Middle East the Mongols encouraged trade and specifically discouraged agriculture. The Mongols also eliminated tariffs throughout their empire. Because of this trade flourished in the Middle East as it did in China.
The Mongol rule in China and the Middle East was very different politically in that the Mongols allowed the leaders in the Middle East to remain while in China they did not. In addition they took on the Middle Eastern culture more by converting to Islam while in China, they did not take on Confucianism. However the Mongols attempted to take on parts of the culture in both regions. Economically both the mongols in China and the Middle East were similar. In both regions the Mongols encouraged trade and eliminated tariffs. Because of this trade flourished in this time period.
While the Mongols’ political influence in China was more dramatic in the short term, the Mongols actually influenced China less than they did Russia, which labored under a longer (if less obvious) Mongol influence for centuries. Economically though, the Mongols had a far reaching impact on both Russia and China. Economically, the effects were similar. In both regions, the Mongols taxed the populace. The tax was comparable in amount and served the Mongols similarly. Mongol rule, however, did bring some economic boon to the whole region. The Mongol empire established a network that allowed for easier long distance trade, with respect to goods, technology, and ideas. As early as 1200, the Mongols were experimenting with gunpowder in China and its export via the Mongol empire was good for the Chinese markets. With buyers as far away as the Middle East, trade was facilitated by Mongol maintenance of the larger empire and subsequent peace that allowed for easier trade. Such ease of trade is characteristic of imperialism,