How to make a simple Gantt chart
13 September 2011by Jonathan O'Donnell
In every grant application, I want to see a simple visual guide (a Gantt chart) that shows what you are planning to do. It is the perfect time to plan your project clearly. It shows the assessors that you have thought about your research in detail and, if it is done well, it can serve as a great, convincing overview of the project.
Clearly, these charts are hard to do. If they were easy, more people would do them, right?
Here are five steps to create a simple guide to your research project.
1. List your activities
Make a list of everything that you plan to do in the project. Take your methodology and turn it into a step-by-step plan. Have you said that you will interview 50 people? Write it on your list. Are you performing statistical analysis on your sample? Write it down.
List of tasks for “Simple Privacy”, a one year project
Check it against your budget. Everything listed in the budget should also be listed on your uber-list? Have you asked for a Thingatron? Note down that you will need to buy it, install it, commission it… What about travel? Write down each trip separately.
2. Estimate the time required
For each item on your list, estimate how long it will take you to do that thing. How long are you going to be in the field? How long will it take to employ a research assistant? Realistically, how many interviews can you do in a day? When will people be available?
- Initial meeting: about 3 weeks to find a time.
- Desk audit: 4 months.
- Draft key elements: about 1 week each.
- Testing: about 1 week each, but can start organising as soon as first element is drafted.
- Write up: 2 months.
- Final report: no time, really – just need to find a time to meet.
Generally, I use weeks to estimate time. Anything that takes less than a week I round off to a week. Small tasks like that will generally disappear from the list when we consolidate (see Step 4). Then I group things together into months for the actual plan.
3. Put activities in order
What is the first thing that you are going to do? What will you do next? What will you do after that?
In the comments, Adrian Masters provided some great questions to help with this stage:
- What do I need to do by when?
- What do I need from others & when?
- How do I check that I am still on track?
One by one, put everything in order. Make a note of any dependencies; that is, situations where you can’t do one thing until another is started or finished. If the research assistant is going to do all the interviews, then the interviews can’t start until the research assistant is hired.
Where possible, you should eliminate as many as possible dependencies. For example, if you can’t find a decent research assistant, you will do the fieldwork yourself (but that might mean that work will be delayed until you finish teaching). It isn’t a necessary step to getting your time-line in order, but it is good project management practice.
In the comments, Amy Lamborg pointed out that you might want to work backwards. If you have a fixed end date, you might want to “…build back towards the project start date, then jiggle everything until it fits!” If you want an example of this, have a look at the post “Work backwards“. It is about writing an application, but the principle of starting with the fixed end date and working backwards still applies.
4. Chunk it up
Now that you have an ordered list, and you know how long everything will take, you need to reduce the list without losing any specificity. At the same time, if you are combining tasks, you might want to add a bit of time as a contingency measure.
- Meet with partners: 3 weeks.
- Review data protection regimes: 4 months.
- Draft three key elements: 3 months.
- Test three key elements: 3 months, with some overlap.
- Analyse test results and report: 3 months.
How you divide up your time depends on your project. If it is only one year long, you might list items by month. If your project is three years long, then you might list items by quarter. If you are planning over five years, you might break it down to six-month periods.
5. Draw me a picture
If you use project management software to manage your project, and you are comfortable with it, then use it to produce a summary of your project, too.
Most project management software (e.g. like Microsoft Project) will allow you to group activities into summary items. Chunk your tasks into major headings, then change the time interval to your months, quarters, half-years, or whatever you have chosen to use.
Or you can just draw it up with word-processing software (which is what I always do), spreadsheet software, or even hand-draw it.
Example of a Gantt chart
Frankly, I don’t care – as long as it ends up in your application!
Also in the ‘simple grant’ series:
Gantt Charts, Completion Plans and Planning your Research
As a student you are required to deliver an updated Gantt chart or a Completion plan as part of the formal review Milestones of your candidature to illustrate the various stages and activities of research in candidature, from commencement to completion. A Gantt chart helps you plan your activities, communicate with your supervisory team and the University, and helps you keep track of your progress.
A Gantt chart is a planning, communication and tracking tool, and is certainly not set in stone. A Gantt chart helps you plan ahead and communicate your plans and progress to your supervisors and review board. Importantly it helps you keep track of progress, allowing you to better understand whether you are on-track as you progress in your research, and if necessary, enabling you to redirect your efforts and take corrective action as early as possible.
Planning for publications and conferences could be incorporated into your chart or plan. While it is desirable that the document is flexible enough to allow for revision of timelines, said flexibility should not be seen as an opportunity to justify numerous changes resulting from a student's lack of progress for reasons that were not beyond his/her control.
Examples of a Gantt chart and Completion Plan are available online.
It is not possible to include charts or plans to cover all student experiences, however it is hoped that the resources provided will be an aid in helping you and your supervisors set appropriate timelines for your candidature.