Ict In Education Essay

Information Communication Technology (ICT) for Effective Subject Delivery in Technical Education: Delta State University Experience

ABSTRACT

This study is on Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching and Learning Technical Education. The purpose of the study is to assess availability, utilization, and challenges facing ICT integration in the teaching and learning of technical education in Delta State University Abraka. Three research questions and hypotheses were used in this study. Survey research design was used in this study. A 4- point scale questionnaire was used to collect data. The population of the study was 263 technical education students for 2012/2013 academic session. One hundred students comprising of 70 male and 30 female were randomly selected. Mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions while ANOVA was use to test the hypotheses using F statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed among others that ICT resources were not available for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University. Also, lack of ICT resources, lack of qualified ICT professionals and computer engineers are challenges to the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of technical education. Based on the findings it was recommended that Delta state government should provide the required ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka.

Keywords: ICT, Technical Education, Teaching, & Learning

INTRODUCTION

The role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy (Rosen & Well, 1995; and Thierer, 2000). At every level of education, educational technology is perceived as a vehicle for curriculum enhancement. Studies including those of Hadley and Sheingold (1992); McDaniel, Melnerney and Armstrong (1993); Hannafin and Saverye (1993) have indicated that educational technology has the potential for enhancing student learning. Educational technology in this context refers to technology that is employed in the classroom for the purpose of student instruction (Buck, 1994). It is all about computer-based technology including computer hardware, software, CD-Rom, videodisc player and the Internet. These forms of technology provide teachers and students with vast quantities of information in an easily accessible, non-sequential format that can be used as teaching tool.
According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Iyamu (2005), most experts in the field of education agreed that, when properly used, information and communication technology hold great promise of improving teaching and learning in addition to shaping workforce opportunities. There is no doubt that computer can aid the instructional process and facilitate students’ learning. In the more advanced industrialized nations, there has been a staggering amount of research and publication related to ICT use for educational purposes during the past decade. Today, nearly everyone in the industrialized nations gained access to ICT and the purchase of computers for school use in nations such as the United States has been increasing in a pace that is difficult to keep track of. Thus it is difficult to know how many computer machines are now in American schools (Harper, 1987). Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Iyamu (2005) posited that, in Britain, the availability of computers in schools was made possible through government funding largely through the Local Education Authorities (LEA). Also, just as the United States and Britain have been budgeting huge sums of money for cyber education, so have other developed nations been doing same. Even many developing nations have embraced ICT.
In Africa, concerted efforts have been made by many governments to initiate Internet connectivity and technology training programs. Such programs link schools around the world in order to improve education, enhance cultural understanding and develop skills that youths need for securing jobs in the 21st century. In Uganda, an interconnectivity programme known as ‘Uganda School Net’ is dedicated to extending educational technology throughout Uganda (Carlson & Firpo, 2001). In Senegal, teachers and students are using computers extensively as information tools. These programs in African countries mentioned are supported by their government through the ministries of Education (Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu, 2005).However, in Nigeria, the case is different; this view was supported by Okebukola (1997) who reported that computer is not part of classroom technology in over 90% of public schools in Nigeria. Thus chalkboards and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities in most secondary schools in Nigeria. Technical education in tertiary institutions may not be left out.
Technical education is a type of education which prepares individuals for the world of work. It is also a viable tool for sustainable development. According to Man (2005), technical education is the systematic and orderly transmission of knowledge, skills, and values to develop a workforce that is able to enhance productivity and sustain competitiveness in the global economy. It encompasses the ability to accelerate economic growth, provide marketable labour supply, minimize unemployment and underemployment, infuse technical knowledge and reduce poverty. Technical education refers to all measures whereby people acquire skills and provide them better access to employment and income. Chepkemei, Watindi, Cherono, Ng’isirei, and Rono (2012), in their study opined that technical education is understood to be;
‘ An aspect of lifelong learning and preparation of a responsible citizenry.
‘ An avenue to prepare for occupational fields for participation in the world of work.
‘ An important part of education
‘ An instrument for development
Utilisation of ICT resources for teaching and learning may involve the e-learning process and techniques. The e-learning is not a new phenomenon in promoting education in some parts of the world. Presently, some institutions in Nigeria are using it to promote distance education (DE) and lifelong learning. E-learning according to Sale (2002), is the use of electronic technology to deliver education and training applications, monitor learner’s performance and report learner’s progress. Hedge and Hayward (2004), defined it as an innovative approach for delivering electronically mediated, well-designed, learner-centered and interactive learning environments to anyone, anyplace, anytime by utilizing the internet and digital technologies that concern the instructional design principles. When compared with the developed countries, the educational uses of ICT on vocational education and training schools in Nigeria are still in the infancy stage because, most learners are taught by the traditional approach and often times with the resultant effect of poor performance. Computer assisted learning provides the active participation and hands-on-experience that learners require to construct meaningful learning. The number of computers installed in the schools is deficient, considering access to computers; one computer is shared, on average by as many as fifty students. This implies that most times some of the students do not have the opportunity to use computers.
The use of computer and ICT simulations to replace expensive equipment in vocational education and training schools can also be a cost effective application and an important means to secure equal access to education and to equal quality. According to Bauer and Kenton (2005) many teachers have not integrated computers and ICT or used these tools to supplement instruction Bennett (2002) questioned whether schools would ever implement the potential for learning that computers and ICT offer. He argued that more effective education would result only if citizens, educators, parents, and politicians understand how computers could be used in schools effectively and software developers would create useful software. Until schools can permit a major alteration in the way teaching is carried on, they must necessarily continue to miss out on the improvement that computer technology can bring.
Okebukola (1997) reported that the computer is not part of classroom technology in more than 90 percent of Nigerian public schools. This implies that the chalkboard and textbook continue to dominate classroom activities in most Nigerian secondary schools. Ndiku (2003) cited by Wima and Lawler (2007) discovered that insufficient numbers of computers and peripheral devices inhibit deployment of ICT by teachers. Okwudishu (2005) discovered that the unavailability of some ICT components in schools hampers teachers’ use of ICTs. Lack of adequate search skills and of access points in the schools were reported as factors inhibiting the use of the Internet by secondary school teachers (Kaku, 2005). The absence of ICT equipment in most Nigerian secondary schools leads students to resort to cybercaf??s for Internet access. Most cybercaf?? clients in Nigeria are students (Adomi, Okiy and Ruteyan, 2003). It was reported by Southwood (2004) that more than 40 percent of the population of Africa is in areas not covered by telecom services. This implies that schools located in such areas will experience ICT connectivity problems, even when the schools are opportune to have ICT resources.
In this study, subject delivery is tantamount to teaching and learning. Chapin and Messick (1992) and Imogie (1998) asserted that the role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy. Accordingly, Thomas (1987) and Shavinina (1997) share the view that the computer as educational technology provides productive teaching and learning in order to increase people’s creative and intellectual resources especially in today’s information society. Consequently, there is emphasis on the intensive use of ICT for teaching and learning in the developed world as a potent means of equipping students for successful and productive living in a technologically developed world (Thomas, 1987). At the instructional level, computers are used by pupils to learn Reading, Mathematics, Social Studies, Art, Science, Music and so on. Through the simultaneous use of audio, text, multi colour, images, graphics, motion, computers give ample and exceptional opportunities to the students to develop capacities for high quality learning and to increase their ability to innovate.
According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Iyamu (2005), there are several impediments to the successful use of information and communication technology in secondary schools in Nigeria. These are: high cost of ICT facilities, weak infrastructure, lack of skills, lack of relevant software and limited access to the Internet. In Nigeria also, most secondary school teachers lack the skills to fully utilize technology in curriculum implementation hence the traditional chalk and duster approach still dominates in secondary school pedagogy. Information transfer using ICT is minimal or non-existence in secondary schools in Nigeria (Anao, 2003). According to Enakrire and Onyenenia (2007), underfunding is a challenge on ICT utilization in Nigerian schools. Electricity failure has been a persistent problem militating against ICT application and use in Nigeria (Adomi, 2005; Adomi, Omodeko, and Otole, 2004; Adomi, Okiy, and Ruteyan, 2003). This makes the few schools with ICT facilities unable to use them regularly. Also, Dabesaki (2005) stated that many of the factors militating against the integration of ICT include: Poor power supply; High poverty level; High illiteracy level; Inconsistent political landscape; and Inadequate broadband among other things.
According to Ajadi, Salawu, & Adeoye (2008), the major problems facing the proper implementation of e-learning in Nigerian institutions in general and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) in particular are as follows:
‘ Inequality of access to the technology itself by all the NOUN students the so called digital divide: The cost of a Personal Computer (PC) and Laptop are still very high in Nigeria considering the income level of an average worker in the country. Few of the NOUN students that are privileged to have a PC/Laptop are not connected to the internet as this do attract extra cost which they cannot afford.
‘ Technophobia: Most of the students admitted by NOUN have no computer education background, hence they are afraid of operating one, some go to the extent of hiring expert at a cost to fill their admission, registration and other document meant for them to fill online. However, the very few who have access to the computer do not know how to use it and maximize it usage.
‘ Internet Connectivity: The cost of accessing internet is still very high in West Africa. It is as high as $8/Kbps, while it costs a ridiculous amount of $0.52/Kbps in North Africa and even lesser in Europe. Most of NOUN Students make use of Cyber Caf?? who charges between #100.00 and #150.00 per hour despite their poor service and slow rate of their server.
‘ School Curriculum: Most of the students admitted by NOUN have no information technology/computer education knowledge because it was not entrenched in the curriculum at their elementary and secondary education level. Not until recently when computer education is been introduced at elementary level and it is not yet a compulsory subject at the secondary level of our education system.
‘ Attitude of NOUN Students: ICT refutes independent learning and most of NOUN students are reluctant to take responsibility for their own learning. But they preferred to be spoon-fed at all times.
‘ Software and License cost: It is very expensive to get some of the software because they are not developed locally, they are developed in Europe and other developed countries to suit their own system and make their own living. The cost and even the interpretation of the software put off some of the NOUN students who showed interest.
‘ Maintenance and Technical Support: There are few technical staff to maintain the system, this make it very expensive for few NOUN students that has a PC to maintain when a technical problem is noticed.
‘ Electricity: The perennial problem in Nigeria is the problem of electricity instability which has been a major setback for our technological development. Some of NOUN students that reside in cities and towns are faced with the problem of epileptic supply of electricity. While majority of them live in rural areas that are not connected to the national grid.
As well, according to Adeyemi (2004), the major constraints hindering the use of ICT resources include poor power supply, poor infrastructure, lack of adequate skill, high cost, and unavailability. From the aforementioned, it may be difficult for Nigerian schools to acquire and install ICT resources for subject delivery.The Nigerian Federal Government’s 1988 policy introduced computer education to the high schools (Okebukola, 1997). The only way this policy was implemented was the distribution of computers to federal government high schools, which were never used for computer education of the students. No effort was made to distribute computer to state government or private schools. Although the government planned to integrate ICTs into the school system and provide schools with infrastructure, concerted efforts have not been made to provide facilities and trained personnel. Thus, most schools do not yet offer ICT training programmes (Goshit, 2006). The NEPAD e-Schools Project is expected to take care of an estimated 600,000 African schools. This means that not all schools will benefit from this initiative. Most countries participating in the NEPAD e-Schools Project have an ICT development policy or are creating one, but very few have clear implementation plans (Aginam, 2006). Evoh (2007) observes that despite the recognized role of ICTs in improving education, ICTs remain a low financial priority in most educational systems in Africa.
Although, developing countries such as Nigeria have become aware of the invaluable role of technology in effective teaching and learning, they have not make significant progress in improving education through this medium. In Africa, concerted efforts have been made by many governments including Nigeria to initiate Internet connectivity and technology training programmes. These programmes are expected to link schools and libraries around the world to improve education; enhance cultural understanding; develop vital skills of creativity, problem-solving and independent thinking which the youth need for survival in the global setting. Aduwa and Iyamu (2004) reported on the progress made in Uganda, Senegal and Nigeria to institutionalize educational technology. Efforts are gradually being made to provide educational institutions with computers and to encourage ICT as integral component of the educational process so as to meet the demands and challenges of globalization. It is against these backdrops that this study seeks to ascertain the integration of ICT in teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
The purpose of this study is examined the state of integration of ICT for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sets out to examine the:
1. Availability of ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
2. Utilization of the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
3. Challenges of integration of ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
The following research questions were raised for this study:
1. What are the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria?
2. Are the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria utilized?
3. What are the challenges of integrating ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria?
The following research hypotheses were stated for this study:
1. There is no significant difference between the mean response of male and female technical education students on the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
2. There is no significant difference between the mean response of male and female technical education students on the utilization of the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
3. There is no significant difference between the mean response of male and female technical education students on the challenges of integrating ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
The findings of this study will be significant to Delta State Ministry of Higher Education, School administrators, lecturers, students, and future researchers. Therefore, the findings of the study will exposed the various ICT resources available in teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University, Abraka which will enable government and other stakeholders to tackle the challenges of the integration of ICT in technical education programme across academic institutions.This study is on ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education. The study is limited in scope to examine the integration of ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University, Abraka Nigeria.
METHOD

This study adopted the survey research design since no variable will be manipulated in the study. The area of the study is the Department of Technical and Business Education (Technical Education Unit), Delta State University, Abraka. Population of this study was made up of two hundred and sixty three 2012/2013 regular undergraduate students in technical education unit of the Department of Technical and Business Education of Delta State University, Abraka (Department of Technical Education DELSU, 2014). For purposes of the study the simple random sampling technique under the probability sampling technique was adopted. A sample size of 100 sampling units was obtained. This consisted of 30 female students and 70 male students. A four (4) point scale questionnaire titled ‘Integration of ICT in Technical Education Programme of Delta State University’ with three (3) sections (Section A-C) Section A is on available ICT resources, Section B is on utilization of ICT resources, and Section C is on challenges of integration of ICT in Technical Education programme. Section A, B, and C has 12, 12, and 14 items respectively making up a total of 38 items in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was content and faced validated the researchers and possible corrections were made as suggested. The questionnaires were administered to twenty (20) students of the Department of Science and Technical Education, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt who are not part of the sample under study. The Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the reliability which yields 0.76. This result implies that the instrument is reliable. The questionnaires was administered on the students and collected on the spot which yield a hundred percent return rate. The mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions. Furthermore, the hypotheses were tested using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance using the F- statistical table. In analyzing data for the research questions the decision point was 2.70 and above because the midpoint is 2.50 which is the criterion mean. This implies that any response with mean rating of 2.70 and above were regarded as agree and mean rating less than 2.70 were regarded as disagree. Also, when the F-calculated is less than the F-tabulated at 0.05 level of significance the Null hypothesis will be accepted.

RESULTS/ FINDINGS
Research Question 1: What are the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria?

Table 1 Shows the Availability of ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning Technical Education in Delta State University Abraka Nigeria
S/N The Following ICT Resources are Available for Teaching and Learning Technical Education: Male Female
Mean S.D Remark Mean S.D Remark
1. Audio-Cassette Tapes 2.46
1.11
Disagree 1.33 0.61 Disagree
2. Radio 2.54
1.03
Disagree 1.27 0.52 Disagree
3. Videotapes
2.01
0.99
Disagree 1.20 0.55 Disagree
4. CD-ROM and DVD
2.16
1.22
Disagree 1.23 0.43 Disagree
5. Internet/Web-Based Training
1.33
0.53
Disagree 1.13 0.35 Disagree
6. Web-Based Training (WBT) Programmes
1.83
0.99
Disagree 1.10 0.31 Disagree
7. Audio conferencing
1.63
0.94
Disagree 1.10 0.40 Disagree
8. Audio graphics
1.69
1.10
Disagree 1.23 0.43 Disagree
9 Interactive Television
1.27
0.45
Disagree 1.20 0.47 Disagree
10. Video conferencing
1.64
0.74
Disagree 1.00 0.00 Disagree
11 Laptops/ Computers 1.97
1.18
Disagree 1.40 0.50 Disagree
12 Over Head Projector 1.56 0.85 Disagree 1.03 0.18 Disagree
Grand Mean and S.D 1.84 0.40 1.19 0.12

Research Question 2: Are the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria utilized?
Table 2 Shows the State of Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning Technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria
S/N The Following ICT Resources are Utilized for Teaching and Learning Technical Education: Male Female
Mean S.D Remark Mean S.D Remark
13. Audio-Cassette Tapes 1.74 0.83 Disagree 1.23 0.43 Disagree
14. Radio 1.96 0.97 Disagree 1.10 0.31 Disagree
15. Videotapes
1.81 0.77 Disagree 1.17 0.38 Disagree
16. CD-ROM and DVD
1.83 1.08 Disagree 1.17 0.38 Disagree
17. Internet/Web-Based Training
1.61 0.71 Disagree 1.03 0.18 Disagree
18. Web-Based Training (WBT) Programmes
1.43 0.73 Disagree 1.37 0.49 Disagree
19. Audio conferencing.
1.71 0.87 Disagree 1.03 0.18 Disagree
20 Audio graphics
1.84 0.86 Disagree 1.23 0.43 Disagree
21. Interactive Television
1.70 0.86 Disagree 1.00 0.00 Disagree
22. Video conferencing
1.83 0.70 Disagree 1.20 0.41 Disagree
23 Laptops/ Computers 1.87 1.13 Disagree 1.10 0.40 Disagree
24 Over Head Projector 1.60 0.73 Disagree 1.20 0.41 Disagree
Grand Mean and S.D 1.74 0.15 1.15 0.11

Research Question 3: What are the challenges of integrating ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria?

Table 3 Shows the Challenges of Integrating ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning Technical Education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria
S/N The Following are Challenges of Integrating ICT Resources in Technical Education: Male Female
Mean S.D Remark Mean S.D Remark
25. The absence of ICT equipment in most Nigerian schools 3.50 0.90 Agree 3.23 1.07 Agree
26. High cost of ICT facilities, 2.90 1.34 Agree 3.27 1.17 Agree
27. Acute shortage of trained personnel in: application of software, operating systems, network administration and local technicians to service and repair computer facilities. 3.30 1.05 Agree 3.53 0.78 Agree
28. Inadequate training facilities for ICT education 3.47 1.05 Agree 3.53 1.07 Agree
29. Teachers lack the skills to fully utilize ICT in curriculum implementation 3.21 1.24 Agree 3.60 0.72 Agree
30. Inadequate supply of relevant and appropriate software 3.41 0.88 Agree 3.70 0.92 Agree
31. Unavailability of some ICT components in the schools 3.23 1.18 Agree 3.23 0.90 Agree
32 Electricity failure 3.41 0.92 Agree 2.97 1.33 Agree
33. The cost of computers is too high. 3.51 1.05 Agree 3.13 1.04 Agree
34. Internet rates are exorbitant and the charges for satellite television are unaffordable for most people in Africa 2.94 1.14 Agree 3.33 1.24 Agree
35 Inadequate ICT infrastructure 3.14 0.97 Agree 3.70 0.92 Agree
36 Lack of skilled manpower, to manage available systems 3.70 0.75 Agree 3.33 0.92 Agree

37 Resistance to change from traditional pedagogical methods by both students and teachers 3.43 1.14 Agree 3.27 1.26 Agree
38 Limited access to the Internet 2.87 1.26 Agree 2.73 1.05 Agree
Grand Mean and S.D 3.29 0.25 3.33 0.28

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference between the mean response of male and female technical education students on the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
Table 4: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) from Mean Response of Male and Female Undergraduate Technical Education Students on the Available ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning Technical Education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 0.191 6 0.032 3.902 0.078
Within Groups 0.041 5 0.008
Total 0.231 11
Ftab=4.84; df= 11 *Accept
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between the mean response of male and female technical education students on the utilization of the available ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.
Table 5: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) from Mean Response of Male and Female Undergraduate Technical Education Students on the Utilization of the Available ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning Technical Education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 1.388 8 0.174 1.288 0.461
Within Groups 0.404 3 0.135
Total 1.793 11
Ftab=4.84; df= 11 *Accept
Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference between the mean response of male and female technical education students on the challenges of integrating ICT resources for teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.

Table 6: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) from Mean Response of Male and Female Undergraduate Technical Education Students on the Challenges of Integrating ICT Resources for Teaching and Learning Technical Education in Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria.

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 0.308 8 0.039 0.373 0.896
Within Groups 0.517 5 0.103
Total 0.825 13
Ftab=4.67; df= 13 ; p<0.05 *Accept

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Table 1 revealed that ICT resources were not available in the teaching and learning of technical education in Delta State University Abraka. These ICT resources include Audio-Cassette Tapes; Radio; Videotapes; CD-ROM and DVD; Internet/Web-Based Training; Web-Based Training (WBT) Programmes; Audio conferencing; Audio graphics; Interactive Television; Video conferencing; Laptops/ Computers; and Over Head Projector.This findings were supported by Okebukola (1997); Ndiku (2003); and Okwudishu (2005) who reported that ICT resources were not part of classroom technology in over 90% of public schools in Nigeria. Thus the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities in most secondary schools in Nigeria.
Table 2 revealed that ICT resources were not utilized in the teaching and learning of technical education in Delta State University Abraka. Table 3 revealed that there are challenges to the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of technical education in Delta State University. The challenges include: The absence of ICT equipment in most Nigerian schools; High cost of ICT facilities; Acute shortage of trained personnel in: application of software, operating systems, network administration and local technicians to service and repair computer facilities; Inadequate training facilities for ICT education; Teachers lack the skills to fully utilize ICT in curriculum implementation; Inadequate supply of relevant and appropriate software; Unavailability of some ICT components in the schools; Electricity failure; The cost of computers is too high; Internet rates are exorbitant and the charges for satellite television are unaffordable for most people in Africa; Inadequate ICT infrastructure; Lack of skilled manpower, to manage available systems; Resistance to change from traditional pedagogical methods by both students and teachers; and Limited access to the Internet. This findings are in line with Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Iyamu (2005),thes researchers opined that there are several impediments to the successful use of information and communication technology in schools in Nigeria. These are: high cost of ICT facilities, weak infrastructure, lack of skills, lack of relevant software and limited access to the Internet. Also, the work of Okebukola (1997) is in line with the findings of this study when opined that there is acute shortage of trained personnel in: application of software, operating systems, network administration and local technicians to service and repair computer facilities. Also, Okwudishu (2005) discovered that unavailability of some ICT components in the schools hampered teachers’ use of ICTs. Electricity failure has been a persistent problem militating against ICT application and use in Nigeria (Adomi, 2005; Adomi, Omodeko, and Otole, 2004; Adomi, Okiy, and Ruteyan, 2003).
Table 4, 5, and 6 shows that the hypotheses formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance were accepted since the calculated F-value were greater than the tabulated F-value.
CONCLUSION
Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that ICT resources are not available for teaching and learning technical education in the Delta State University Abraka. Therefore ICT integration in technical education programme in Delta State University Abraka can only be possible when the challenges of integration of ICT in teaching and learning Technical Education is been addressed by both government and stakeholders in the field of education for successful integration of ICT in the teaching and learning of technical education.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations were made:
i. Delta State Government should provide the required ICT resources that will be use for teaching and learning of technical education in Delta State University.
ii. ICT training and re-training programme should be organized for technical education lecturers in other for them to be able to integrate ICT in teaching and learning technical education in Delta State University Abraka.
iii. ICT professionals such as software and computer engineers should be employed to manage and maintain the ICT equipment for teaching and learning technical education.
iv. Technical education lecturers should not resist change as a result of the introduction of technology in the classroom.
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Anderson and Glen (2003) explain the origins of the educational application of the term information and communication technology (ICT), as deriving from previous terms like information technology (IT) and new technologies. They comment that the addition of communication to information technology (IT) emphasizes the growing importance attributed to the communication aspects of new technologies. They define ICT as generally related to those technologies that are used for accessing, and gathering, manipulating and presenting or communicating information. The technologies could include hardware (e.g. computers and other devices); software applications; and connectivity (e.g. access to the Internet, local networking infrastructure, and video-conferencing).

ICT refers to information-handling tools that are used to generate, store, process, distribute and share information (UNDP, 2001). The use ICT in education is obviously not a new rally for the protection and promotion of life. There are many evidences that the use of ICT in education provides positive pedagogical, social and economic benefits (Rodrigo, 2001).

According to Okebukola (2006), quality is judgement which determines the extent of preparation and efficiency of teachers, adequacy and accessibility of materials and facilities needed for effective teaching and learning, and how the teachers can cope with the challenges ahead of their job. The principal contribution of a university to society turns out on the quality of knowledge it generates and impacts, the habits of critical thought and problem-solving it institutionalizes and inculcates in its graduates, and the values of openness and democratic governance it promotes and demonstrates. The easiest way to ascertain these contributions is the caliber and commitment of lecturers to continuous improvement in teaching, research and community interactions; the range and quality of the curriculum and pedagogy; the quality and extent of educational facilities; commitment to evaluation and review of the activities to seek continuous improvements (Sawyer, 2004; Liston, 1999).

According to Shyamal Majumdar, director general of the Colombo Plan Staff College for Technician Education (cited by Oliva, 2008), ICT in education has at least four stages: emerging stage which means awareness, applying stage which means learning, infusing stage which means the use and integration into the curriculum, and transforming stage which means innovative learning by developing new ways of teaching-learning using ICT. For developed countries, ICT in education is undeniably has produced significant positive impact. ICT is changing the developed world’s attitudes and approaches to education” (Loxley, 2004). Education in these countries becomes more flexible, accommodating and increases reach of potential learners. E-learning, blended learning, open and distance learning, learner-centered environment, mobile learning are just the few dramatic changes in these countries. ICT generally changed the way students learn, the way teachers teach, and the way school operates. In contrary, ICT in education in the developing countries has been a long way to go and ICT infusion in education is an emerging issue. On the positive side, government, non-government organizations, industries and other stakeholders have closely work together to promote ICT for the promotion and betterment of life of every citizen.

Tinio (2002) concurs noting that that the groundswell of interest in the newer computer and internet technologies to improve educational efficiency and effectiveness, distracts attention from the longer and richer history of older technologies such as the radio, television and print to support instructional delivery.

Unwin (2004) laments the tendency to interpret ICT as being restricted to the newer technologies. He considers that our understandings for ICT use in professional development should be broadened to include the value of blended learning solutions which he defines as the ‘combination of printed text materials, radio, video and face-to-face practical experiences alongside the use of computers and the internet (to enable) people to learn effectively in ways that are appropriate to their needs.

Leach and Moon (2002) defend a differentiation in interpretation between older and newer technologies in terms of their potential impact for educational transformation. There have been they note ‘past disappointments with technologies’. In line with several writers they believe that it is the reach of new cybernetic technologies that can provide new and potent opportunities to revolutionize both access to, and the quality of professional learning. The ‘revolutionary’ potency lies principally in new technology features such as web 2.0 where interactive written communication, multi-media text/image/sound/video combinations, hypertext creation, many-to-many communication in forms hitherto thought of, provide opportunities for learners to become producers of knowledge and not just consumers of information (Papert 1993, 2004; Leach and Moon 2002; Kirschner and Davis, 2003; Warschauer, 2006; Thompson, 2009).

The rhetoric of revolutionary potency inherent in new tools is carried forward in Haddad’s (UNESCO, online) description of ICT as a ‘third revolution in the dissemination of knowledge and in the enhancement of instruction’. Drenoyianni (2006) questions the validity of the rhetoric pointing to international evidence which argues that technology ‘cannot revolutionize but can only strengthen, further and reinforce established educational goals, curriculum contents, teaching and learning methods. Pulkkinen (2009) concurs pointing to evidence from more recent reports on technology for development (UNCTAD, 2007) which make clear that ‘introducing a technology, no matter how innovative, does not necessarily change the reality at school level, if there is insufficient capacity and knowledge to develop new processes, to alter the institutional settings and to effectively utilize the given technology’.

Shafika (2006) defines Teacher Professional Development (TPD) as ‘a systematized, initial and continuous, coherent and modular process of professional development of educators in accordance with professional competency standards and frameworks’. Teacher professional development would also include training in the adaptation to the evolution of change of the profession of teachers and managers of education systems.

This is a definition that hints at the state of flux in which the teaching profession finds itself – a state exacerbated with the introduction and gradual infusion of new technologies into education systems. The definition presents a concept of Teacher Professional Development in ICT which ‘should equip teachers not just with basic ICT skills, but should encourage the evolution towards integrating technologies into teaching subjects and practices’ (emphasis added). The implication is that TPD in ICT is not simply about how to use technologies but also about why and when to use them in transforming teaching practices (SchoolNet Africa 2004).

Hallissey (2009) notes that whereas most national ICT plans contain the term ‘ICT integration’ there are few explicit definitions of the concept and how it can be measured. Despite this lack of clear criteria there is agreement in the literature that ICT integration denotes a change in pedagogical practices that make ICT less peripheral in classroom teaching (Law, Pelgrum&Law, 2006)

The integration of ICT in teacher professional development according to Perratonet al. (2001, cited in Anderson and Glen 2003) involves two sets of activities or roles:

One is training teachers to learn aboutICT and its use in teaching as computers are introduced to schools.… The other role of ICT is as a means of providing teacher education, either as a core or main component of a programme, or playing a supplementary role within it (emphasis added)

Collis and Moonen (2001, cited in Davis and Kirschner, 2003) elaborate on the goals of professional learning about ICT as centered on learning how to use ICT and learning with ICT. When learning how to use ICT the instructional focus is on the use of products in or outside the classroom. In learning with ICT, instruction is presented and distributed primarily through ‘web environments or systems offering an integrated range of tools to support learning and communication’. Davis and Kirschner, (2003) clarify the distinction between the role of ICT as a core and a complementary (supplementary) technology for professional learning settings. A core technology role refers to ‘the principle way of organizing the learning experience’. In contrast a complementary technology roleis ‘optional serving a valuable function but able to be compensated for via the core technology if so needed, or dropped altogether if not functioning or feasible.

Butler (2001) contends that new models for TPD represent a ‘reconceptualization’ of teacher professional learning for a digital age. The models look beyond how teachers ‘engage’ with technology, to how teachers use technology as they work alongside their students to redefine learning itself and to become ‘co-learners’ in the process. It is through learning about their own learning styles and about the phenomenon of learning itself that she believes that teachers become empowered ‘to contribute both to inspirations for new technologies and to the education of new generations of technology innovators’

Kirschner and Davis (2003) present a theoretical framework in which to situate new TPD programmes for technology integration based on twelve dimensions of interactive learning each presented on a continuum. TPD in the use of technology should be designed and implemented to move teachers (and eventually, students) toward the right hand end of the continuum. The theoretical principles underpinning the new models tend towards a kinship with social constructivist epistemologies to learning.

Haddad (2002) cautions on the limitations of the ecological ecosystems of education environments to make shift happen, noting that:

Bureaucratic walls, conventional methodologies, attitudes about innovations and reforms, and management of the teaching/learning process under the influence of examinations and timetables, represent powerful forces that tend to pull teachers back into pre-training modes.

Drenoyanni (2006:405) explains that the assimilation of new technologies cannot be understood in isolation from the broader context of the prevailing and more powerful social, economic and political contexts and dynamics. The incorporation and use of ICT in teacher professional development will ‘mirror to a certain degree contemporary socio-economic problems and prevailing educational conditions’.

Related Studies

A related study conducted by del Rosario (2007) entitled “Technology Integration in Teacher Education Programs in the Philippines,” revealed the complexity of integrating technology because of many variables, that are by themselves complex, impact technology integration. Accordingly, these variables include national, state and school policies; state and local technology plans; funding; teacher skills; the rapidly changing nature of technology; learning goals and objectives; teacher training and professional development; and technology support. The results of del Rosario’s study also point to emerging themes found to be attendant in technology integration, to wit: within the framework of developing countries, the influence of modernization and the desire of these countries to become modernized and developed by using ITs as strategic tools; whether IT is introduced as an added course or infused in the curriculum; the evolving nature of technology, in particular the emerging trend of mobile technology and how this impacts technology use.

Research has indicated that the use of ICT can support new instructional approaches and make hard-to-implement instructional methods such as simulation or cooperative learning more feasible. Moreover, educators commonly agree that ICT has the potential to improve student learning outcomes and effectiveness. Integration has a sense of completeness or wholeness, by which all essential elements of a system are seamlessly combined together to make a whole (Chang & Wu, 2012). Schools have seen an exponential increase in the range of ICT being utilized for learning and teaching over the past decade, especially with the advent of the Internet. What is exciting is not just more technology but that there are more types of technology which teachers can pick and choose from, based on their own pedagogical preferences (Choy, Suan & Chee, 2012).

Moreover, the study of Tan (2011) concludes that “HEIs should try to capitalize on 21st century tools and technologies to address 21st century issues and challenges”. These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies, and telephony that enable people to work together, and combine to form networks every corner of the globe. ICT, as defined by UNDP (2001), is basically a various set of applications, goods and services. It allows teachers and students to produce, share, connect, and comment on their own knowledge and that of others (UNESCO, 2011). Similarly, the Philippines’ Commission on Information and Communications Technology defined ICT as the totality of electronic means for end-users such as computer systems, office systems and consumer electronics, as well as networked information infrastructure, the components of which include the telephone system, the Internet, fax machines and computers. ICT tools are evolving and so implementation strategies have changed to better align on the current needs. A good illustration of the evolution of ICT in education is the Singapore’s ICT Master Plan in Education (cited in UNESCO, 2011). It has three high-level goals of ICT in Education. Year 1997-2002 described the stage of shifting from acquisition mode of learning to one that engages higher order thinking like application, synthesis and evaluation. The Internet, email and videoconferencing tools were among the example tools used. Year 2003-2008 described the shift learning from information receiving to information processing and knowledge creation. Integration of ICT into the curriculum and leveraging ICT for formative assessment and summative assessment are among the implementing tools on this stage. Lastly, 2009-2014 it aims to have better integration of ICT right from the planning of curriculum and assessment, and calls for teachers to consider pedagogical applications of ICT starting from lesson design and planning stage.

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