In 1948, 492 immigrants sailed from Jamaica to London on the Empire Windrush, looking to start a new life in the United Kingdom. This is an example of voluntary migration.
In 1972 President Idi Amin expelled Uganda's Asian population from the country. Many emigrated to Britain - this was forced migration.
As more countries have joined the European Union many workers from poorer nations have exercised their right to travel to and work in other nations such as Britain.
Case Study: Migration from Eastern Europe to the UK
When countries such as Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic joined the EU in 2004, their citizens gained the right to move to the UK to live and work. This resulted in large numbers of immigrants coming to the UK in search of work as the UK economy was booming.
Between 2004 and 2006 the UK became the host country for 600,000 Eastern European migrants. Many found jobs, particularly in the construction and retailing trades, earning up to five times as much as they did in their home countries. Many send money home to their families.
As Eastern Europe developed and the UK economy struggled from 2008 onwards, many Eastern Europeans returned to their home countries. This means that their migration was temporary. Many Eastern European immigrants in the UK intend to return to their home country eventually.
Causes of voluntary migration
Voluntary factors can be described as social or economic. Some examples of social factors are:
- better living conditions
- access to health care
- access to good education
Economic factors include:
- better employment prospects
- higher wages
Effects of voluntary migration
While migration can benefit countries, for example, by providing new trades, skills and a cheaper workforce, there are potential drawbacks to large scale migration.
- healthcare and education services can become strained
- a large influx of migrants can lead to housing shortages
- cultural differences can lead to racial tensions
- the welfare system can become strained if migrants claim benefits
Where Is Everyone Migrating?
Due to SEEP factors, many polish citizens have migrated to the UK.
The city that has received the most immigrants is Peterborough.
Why Is Everyone Migrating?
Polish citizens are migrating to the UK for a better life in general. SEEP factors are causing them to do so.
We can analyse these by looking at them as push and pull factors.
Push & Pull Factors
Push Factors – Influence emigration. Pull factors – Influence immigration.
These push and pull factors can be advantageous or disadvantageous for both Poland and the UK.
Advantages For Poland
Money is sent back home, hence improving the polish economy. (Economic)
Decreases pressure on jobs and resources. (Social + Environmental)
Migrants return home with new skills. (Social)
Disadvantages For Poland
Unemployment increases. (Social)
Due to a smaller workforce, GDP decreases. (Economic)
There is a demographic unbalance as mostly men leave. (Social)
Advantages For The UK
Unemployment decreases. (Social)
Due to a larger workforce, GDP increases. (Economic)
There is a more enriched, diverse culture. (Social)
Disadvantages For The UK
There is more pressure on resources. (Environmental)
People may experience the social pressures of losing an “English feel”. (Social)
The economy is impacted as some migrants send money home. (Economic)
Impact On Population Structure
Most migrants will be people looking for jobs, therefore, the 20-35 year old demographic will see a large increase in the short run. There will be a bigger increase on the male side of the population pyramid rather than the female as generally, more males migrate to look for jobs.
In the long run, some of the illegal migrants may have a child that works as an “anchor baby”, hence increasing the 0-9 year old demographic. This happens because if a illegal migrant is discovered, it is harder to send them back home if they have a child with British nationality.
Test what you have learned here!